The Revenge of the Microbes: The Conjugate Congress of Antibiotic Resistance


About Course #V7258

Release Date: May 26, 2016

Expiration date: May 27, 2019

When antimicrobial resistance emerges, it can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality, as well as increased healthcare costs. Several natural and societal causative associations between a microbe and its resistance to antimicrobials are known. Natural causes include selective pressure, mutations, and gene transfer from one microbe to another. Societal causes include inappropriate use of antimicrobials; inaccurate or inadequate diagnostics; extensive use of antimicrobials, as occurs in the critical care setting; and, although debatable, agricultural use.

Education, including the basis of antimicrobial resistance together with knowledge of the major resistant pathogens, is an essential element of any program and/or strategy for the prevention and containment of such resistance. This course describes the genetic basis for antimicrobial resistance and related topics, along with the features of superbugs characterized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as urgent and serious threats because of their increasing resistance to antibiotics.

Course Objectives

  • Briefly describe the epidemiological pattern of diseases and the general properties of antibiotics.
  • Briefly describe the general properties and the virulence factors among bacterial pathogens.
  • Distinguish between bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions of antibiotics and the ways in which antibiotics work (mechanisms of activity).
  • Describe the relationship between inadequate antimicrobial treatment of infections in hospitalized patients and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant, bacterial-caused infections, as well as the general structures and staining reactions of bacteria.
  • Summarize the general mechanisms of antibiotic resistance found among gram-positive bacteria and approaches to treating antibiotic-resistant infections.
  • Briefly explain the term superbug and identify the general characteristics of bacterial pathogens that are considered urgent or serious public health threats.
  • Describe the approaches and measures used for prevention and control of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens in hospital environments and communities.

About the Author(s)

Traci Marin, PhD, MPH, RRT, RPGST, is an assistant research professor, program director, and professor for the Department of Cardiopulmonary Sciences, Schools of Allied Health and Medicine, at Loma Linda University. She is also an adjunct researcher and advisor in the Department of Medicine at Dr. John Shyy's laboratory at the University of California, San Diego, as well as the founder of Tranquility Community Health. Dr. Marin received a PhD from the University of California, Riverside, in biochemistry and molecular biology; an MPH in epidemiology and biostatistics from Loma Linda University; a bachelor's degree in emergency medical care from Loma Linda University; and an associate's degree in respiratory therapy from Victor Valley College.

Course Disclosures

  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools' policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.

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