Pharmacological Management: Type 2 Diabetes in Children, 2nd Edition


About the Course
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the pediatric population, and the rate of diagnosis is on the rise (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2022a. Traditionally, type 2 diabetes was thought to be an adult-onset illness, but over the past 20 years, there have been an estimated 5,000 new cases per year in children in the U.S. (American Diabetes Association [ADA] et al., 2022g). The pathophysiology and treatment differ significantly from type 1 diabetes, and pediatric healthcare professionals have a responsibility to be well versed in both disease states. Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes is essential for improving healthcare outcomes in children. Earlier diagnosis of type 2 diabetes correlates with earlier development of diabetes complications. As such, intervention in the form of lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic treatment are crucial for positive long-term outcomes. This course will outline the risk factors, pathophysiology, and diagnostic criteria of type 2 diabetes. Goals of management, treatment options, and psychosocial barriers will also be addressed to guide successful multidisciplinary care of these patients.

Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this course, the learner should be able to:

  • Identify the pathophysiology and risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes.
  • Interpret diagnostic criteria of type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes in pediatric patients. 
  • Select goals of therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. 
  • Apply nonpharmacologic recommendations to care of a pediatric patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
  • Choose appropriate pharmacologic therapy for a pediatric patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
  • Recognize psychosocial barriers to success in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients.

About the Author

Danielle McDonald, PharmD, BCPPS, is a pediatric clinical pharmacy specialist at Cooper University Health Care (CUHC). She earned her doctor of pharmacy degree at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. After graduation, she completed a postgraduate year (PGY)-1 pharmacy practice residency at Atlantic Health System followed by a PGY-2 Pediatric Pharmacotherapy residency at Rutgers University. Dr. McDonald’s clinical practice areas include pediatric intensive care, neonatal intensive care, and general pediatrics. She chairs the pediatric pharmacy and therapeutics subcommittee at CUHC and is actively involved in creating hospital-based guidelines, educating medical professionals, and writing peer-reviewed publications. 

About the Content Reviewer

Margaret Hughes MSN, RN, PMHNP, CPRNP-PC, is a dual-certified psychiatric–mental health and pediatric nurse practitioner who graduated from the Yale School of Nursing in 2016 and from Northeastern University School of Nursing in 2021. She currently works at a small outpatient psychiatric practice in Boston, providing psychiatric care across the life span. Prior to this, she worked at a university health center providing healthcare to college students and has also worked at community-based and school-based health centers providing primary care to high-risk, medically underserved populations. She also has experience as a nurse and worked in an outpatient pediatric clinic in Connecticut and at an overnight summer camp in New York.  

How to Receive Credit

  • Read the entire course online or in print which requires a 3-hour commitment of time. 
  • At the end of the course, answer the Yes/No Affirmation question to indicate that you have completed the educational activity. 
  • Specific to Florida: A mandatory Final Examination with a passing score of 70% or higher is required. Exam questions link content to the course Learning Objectives as a method to enhance individualized learning and material