Noninsulin Antihyperglycemic Agents for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes


About the Course 
A variety of noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents are currently available for the management of adults with type 2 diabetes. With many agents functioning at different sites (e.g., the pancreatic production of insulin, muscle sensitivity, slowing gastric emptying, and hepatic glucose regulation), combining agents often yields a more significant overall effect than one agent alone. The choice of antihyperglycemic agents is influenced by comorbidities, patient-centered treatment factors, and standards developed by various organizations with an intent to optimize cardiorenal risk reduction, body weight, and management of glycemia. It is important to remember that medications patients are taking at one point in time are not necessarily what they will be taking in the future. Categories of noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents and noninsulin injectables include biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1 RA), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. This course briefly introduces noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents and noninsulin injectables used to treat adults with type 2 diabetes.

Learning Outcomes 
Upon the completion of this course, the learner will be able to:

  • Distinguish the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of various antihyperglycemic agents, noting dosage variability and side effect profiles. 
  • Examine antihyperglycemic agents’ effects on glycemic targets. 
  • Analyze the benefits of using select antihyperglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiorenal conditions. 
  • Create a medication plan with a rationale and key patient teaching points for the person with type 2 diabetes.

About the Authors/Presenters 
James A. Fain, PhD, RN, BC-ADM, FADCES, FAAN  
Dr. Fain is the associate dean for academic affairs at the UMass Chan Medical School, Tan Chingfen Graduate School of Nursing, in Worcester, Massachusetts. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Fain was dean of the College of Nursing at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth from 2004 to 2014. His primary area of research includes diabetes self-management education/support (DSMES) among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Dr. Fain is the author of numerous articles and a book titled Reading, Understanding, and Applying Nursing Research (6th ed.). He is the recipient of the Distinguished Lifetime Service Award from the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists (ADCES) and a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing (FAAN). Dr. Fain is board certified in advanced diabetes management (BC-ADM) and has worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in several inpatient and outpatient settings. He currently serves as editor in chief of The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care, the official journal of the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists (ADCES).

Nancy S. Morris, PhD, RN, ANP-BC  
Dr. Morris is a professor and director of the PhD in Nursing Program at the UMass Chan Medical School, Tan Chingfen Graduate School of Nursing, in Worcester, Massachusetts. She holds an appointment as an external faculty nurse scientist at the Yvonne L. Munn Center for Nursing Research at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Dr. Morris practices as an adult nurse practitioner at the UMass Diabetes Center of Excellence and the UMass Geriatric Medicine Clinic. Her scholarship focuses on health communication, health literacy, and nursing education. She is a master educator and has received several educational awards, including the 2022 Tan Chingfen Graduate School of Nursing Distinguished Faculty Award and the 2018 American Nurses Association Massachusetts Excellence in Nursing Education Award.

How to Receive Credit 

  • Read the entire course online or in print which requires a 2.5-hour commitment of time. 
  • After completion of the course, complete the final examination.  A passing grade of 75% is required. Test questions link content to learning outcomes as a method to enhance individualized learning and material retention.  
    Note to Nursing professionals: Depending on your state requirements, you will be asked to either affirm that you have completed the course, or you will be required to complete the Post-test included in the course.
  • Provide required personal information and payment information.
  • Complete the mandatory course evaluation.
  • Print your Certificate of Completion.

Resolution of Conflict of Interest 
Colibri Healthcare, LLC implemented mechanisms prior to the planning and implementation of the continuing education activity, to identify and resolve conflicts of interest for all individuals in a position to control content of the course activity.

Sponsorship/Commercial Support and Non-Endorsement 
It is the policy of Colibri not to accept commercial support. Furthermore, commercial interests are prohibited from distributing or providing access to this activity to learners.

The information provided in this activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a healthcare provider relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient’s medical condition. 
©2023: All Rights Reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without the expressed written permission or consent of Colibri Healthcare, LLC. The materials presented in this course are meant to provide the consumer with general information on the topics covered. The information provided was prepared by professionals with practical knowledge of the areas covered. It is not meant to provide medical, legal, or professional advice. Colibri Healthcare, LLC recommends that you consult a medical, legal, or professional services expert licensed in your state. Colibri Healthcare, LLC has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all content provided in this course is accurate and up to date at the time of printing but does not represent or warrant that it will apply to your situation nor circumstances and assumes no liability from reliance on these materials. Quotes are collected from customer feedback surveys. The models are intended to be representative and not actual customers.

Accreditations and Approvals 
Colibri Healthcare, LLC is accredited as a provider of nursing continuing professional development by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

Colibri Healthcare, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. (Provider #0607). Your hours will be reported to CPE Monitor within 10 business days after course completion.

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Colibri Healthcare, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmaceutical education. (Provider #0607).