Controlled Substance Prescribing and Drug Diversion Prevention: Expanded Version


About the Course

Substance use disorders are a significant public health problem with a wide range of adverse effects on individuals' mental, physical, and social well-being. Mental health problems co-occurring with substance use disorders includes depressive, anxiety, and psychotic disorders, as well as organic brain syndromes (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Substance use disorders share many of the same features but differ in pharmacology and associated behaviors that account for the unique effects of each substance (Boland & Verduin, 2022). Alcohol, opioids, central nervous stimulants, cannabinoids, and tobacco describe the phenomenon associated with substance disorders. The hallmark of substance use disorders includes cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms which lead to intoxication, withdrawal, and dependence (APA, 2013). This complex phenomenon demonstrates impaired functioning regardless of presentation. Diagnosis is based on pathological patterns, but all substances activate the same brain reward pathway via dopaminergic neurotransmission (Paxos & Teter, 2019). 

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, the learner will

  • Examine substance use disorders, including opioids.
  • Discuss the concepts and drug use and misuse.
  • Examine principles of opioid use in chronic pain.
  • Discuss best practices for preventing drug diversion.

About the Authors

Humberto Reinoso, Ph.D., FNP-BC, ENP-BC, serves as Assistant Professor and Nurse Practitioner Coordinator at Georgia Baptist College of Nursing of Mercer University. Dr. Reinoso’s clinical responsibilities have progressively evolved as his role in healthcare changed during the past 16 years of clinical practice. Initially, as a registered nurse (RN), he focused on providing the best care possible for patients at the bedside of a busy emergency department (ED) in a teaching hospital in south Florida. As an emergency nurse practitioner (NP), he focused on coordinating and improving patient care in the ED through prescribed interventions and advanced care. Having expanded his role and practice as a dual-certified advanced practice provider, he was granted a greater understanding of how nursing and medicine intertwine. As an experienced Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) and Emergency Nurse Practitioner (ENP), he oversees a full range of nursing care for emergency department patients. Dr. Reinoso received his Ph.D. from Barry University in Miami, Florida. As an Assistant Professor and the Nurse Practitioner Coordinator at Georgia Baptist College of Nursing of Mercer University, he can combine his passion for clinical practice and the education of future advanced practice professionals.  

Robyn B. Caldwell DNP, MSN, FNP-BC, PMHNP, earned a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) from Samford University in nursing administration with an emphasis on nursing education in 2013, a postmaster’s certificate as a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner from Wilkes University in 2022, a postmaster's certificate as a Family Nurse Practitioner from Delta State University in 2003, a master’s degree in nursing administration (MSN) in 1996, and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree in 1990 from the University of Tennessee. Dr. Caldwell has worked in various healthcare settings throughout her 33-year career, including adult and pediatric emergency nursing, nursing administration, and nursing education (LPN to DNP) in community college and university settings. She has published and presented on topics relevant to nursing education and patient outcomes in local, state, and national venues.      

How to Receive Credit 

  • Read the entire course online or in print which requires a 3-hour commitment of time
  • At the end of the course, answer the Yes/No Affirmation question to indicate that you have completed the educational activity.
  • Specific to Florida: A mandatory Final Examination with a passing score of 75% or higher is required. Exam questions link content to the course Learning Objectives as a method to enhance individualized learning and material retention.
  • Provide required personal and payment information.
  • Complete the mandatory course evaluation.
  • Print your Certificate of Completion.

Resolution of Conflict of Interest*

Planners, faculty, and others in control of content (either individually or as a group) have no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Sponsorship/Commercial Support and Non-Endorsement

It is the policy of Colibri Healthcare, LLC not to accept support from ineligible companies. Furthermore, ineligible companies are prohibited from distributing or providing access to this activity to learners.


The information provided in this activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a healthcare provider relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient’s medical condition.  

©2023: All Rights Reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without the expressed written permission or consent of Colibri Healthcare, LLC. The materials presented in this course are meant to provide the consumer with general information on the topics covered. The information provided was prepared by professionals with practical knowledge of the areas covered. It is not meant to provide medical, legal, or professional advice. Colibri Healthcare, LLC recommends that you consult a medical, legal, or professional services expert licensed in your state. Colibri Healthcare, LLC has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all content provided in this course is accurate and up to date at the time of printing but does not represent or warrant that it will apply to your situation nor circumstances and assumes no liability from reliance on these materials. Quotes are collected from customer feedback surveys. The models are intended to be representative and not actual customers.  

Accreditations and Approvals

Colibri Healthcare, LLC is accredited as a provider?of nursing continuing?professional development?by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation