The California Dental Practice Act is the set of regulations that governs dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. This course provides an overview of these governmental entities and outlines the content of the Dental Practice Act, its attending regulations, and other statutes relating to dental practice. The content of this basic-level course was derived primarily from the State of California Department of Consumer Affairs Dental Practice Act, California Code of Regulations, and California Dental Association Code of Ethics. With a more complete understanding of this Dental Practice Act, all dental team members will be better able to practice within its guidelines.
This basic-level course will familiarize dental healthcare personnel with the rules and regulations applicable to infection control in California's dental offices, including the Cal/OSHA regulations and the Dental Board of California's Minimum Standards for Infection Control, as effective August 20, 2011. State regulations are reviewed regularly to ensure that they reflect the most current knowledge and to assure optimum levels of safety for personnel and patients. Readers will review terminology, reasons for infection control and adequate disinfection procedures. Every team member will have a working knowledge of what a dental office needs to comply with current state mandates.
With the United States' continued military action around the world and increasing instances globally and domestically of terrorist attacks, mass shootings, and other violent events, dental professionals may see increasing numbers of trauma survivors with PTSD as part of their patient population. Therefore, dental professionals should be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of PTSD and its possible dental implications. This basic-level course provides an overview of PTSD, including its causes, physical and mental symptoms, and oral manifestations. The course discusses the treatment of PTSD and management of its dental consequences. In addition, the occurrence of PTSD in dental personnel (e.g., forensic dentists) who are involved in recovery efforts following a traumatic event is discussed.
This intermediate-level course reviews the pharmacology and indications for use of the most common medications employed in dentistry. It addresses the pharmacology, side effects, adverse reactions, precautions, and any special dental considerations related to the use of the medications most frequently employed in dentistry. The principles learned will be directly applicable in determining the most suitable approach for drug selection and prescribing and will help address patient and staff concerns around potential risks. Information presented in this course should be considered essential knowledge for all dental professionals, both seasoned and newly credentialed.
This basic-level course identifies the etiology of crown and bridge failure, reviews both conventional and contemporary permanent dental luting agents for fixed restorations and their chemical and mechanical properties, factors to consider in their selection, handling characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and clinical applications. By familiarizing themselves with the specifics of each type of dental luting agent, dental professionals will be better prepared to make effective decisions regarding the application and longevity of their patients' restorations.
This basic-level course describes periodontal ligament injection techniques for administering local anesthetics to provide pulpal anesthesia when conventional infiltration and regional block methods are unsatisfactory or inadequate. The indications and contraindications for periodontal ligament injections are discussed in addition to factors influencing the duration and efficacy of periodontal ligament anesthesia and potential postoperative side effects.
This basic-level course reviews the risk factors associated with periodontal disease, and discusses the potential links between periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The course describes the etiology and pathophysiology of periodontal disease, focusing on microbiology, viral causes, the autoimmune and inflammatory response, resident and infiltrating cells of the periodontium, and matrix metalloproteinases. The course prepares dental professionals to recognize periodontal disease and take steps to prevent this condition and to treat patients who already have or are at risk for developing periodontal disease.
The purpose of this basic-level course is to review the epidemiology, etiology, and risk factors of early childhood caries in children. The focus is on prevention and management techniques for early childhood caries and on identifying the roles that dental professionals can play within the context of a chronic disease management model for care of patients with early childhood caries.
The American Dental Association recognizes that early childhood caries is a significant public health problem in selected populations and is also found throughout the general population.
This basic level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienist and assistants reviews conventional early childhood caries management and discusses the need for unconventional providers and community workers as effective partners in the prevention and management of this disease.
Both periodontal disease and osteoporosis are serious public-health concerns in the United States. This intermediate-level course addresses concepts regarding links between oral health and osteoporosis, discusses the impact on oral health of pharmacotherapies used in the treatment of osteoporosis, and outlines steps to mitigate the impact on oral health of common drug treatments used to treat osteoporosis. Oral healthcare providers must recognize the oral health implications of common therapeutic options for osteoporosis, especially use of bisphosphonates and antiresorptive medications.
This basic-level course helps to protect both patient and practitioner safety by providing dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with a review of the CDC recommendations for barrier precautions in the dental healthcare setting and the application of OSHA regulations to infection control. By understanding certain principles of disease transmission and using infection control practices, dental personnel can prevent disease transmission. The course explains universal precautions and describes personal protective equipment. Environmental infection control procedures are identified including general cleaning recommendations cleaning clinical contact surfaces and cleaning housekeeping surfaces.
This basic-level course reviews the soft tissue lesions found in the oral cavity of adults and discusses their diagnosis and treatment. Common problems include inflammatory and infectious processes, degenerative processes, and abnormal growths.
With oral or facial piercings now becoming more commonplace in the United States, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to be able to advise patients who have piercings or are considering having piercings. It is critical that dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants be familiar with various types of oral piercing, the impact this trend may have on dentition and speech, and the health risks that are associated with piercing. This basic-level course provides dental practitioners with an overview of oral piercing placement, procedures, complications, and patient management.
Oral mucosal infections are on the rise due to many factors, including an aging population, systemic disease, the use of immunosuppressive drugs and with that the rise of opportunistic infections. This intermediate-level course appropriate for dental professionals, reviews oral bacterial infections that are not commonly seen in dental practices, as well as specimen collection and transportation, and medication management of these diseases.
This basic-level course, appropriate for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, addresses nutritional deficiencies, oral signs and symptoms, and preventive oral strategies for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia, iron-deficiency, anemia and scurvy. Inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, pyostomatitis vegetans, and polyposis syndromes and their manifestations in the oral cavity are described.
Oral health encompasses the craniofacial complex and includes the teeth, periodontium, mucosa, gingiva, oral pharynx, temporomandibular joints, and muscles used for mastication. While men and women face many common oral health issues, it is no longer acceptable to consider oral health to be gender neutral. Indeed, women differ from men in their oral health needs and concerns. This basic-level course explores the variables affecting Women's oral health and discusses the issues and concerns that dental professionals face in providing care to their female patients.
A variety of physiologic, anatomic, and hormonal changes accompany pregnancy and affect how oral health care is provided. Unfortunately, dentists, physicians, and patients often misunderstand and avoid oral health care issues during and after pregnancy. This basic-level course will address current concepts regarding oral health in pregnant women and the impact of their oral health on pregnancy outcomes and early childhood health. It will also discuss strategies to optimize oral health during pregnancy.
Older adults generally have multiple medical problems, and no single medical issue can be evaluated and treated in isolation. Approximately 75 million people in the United States have two or more conditions that last a year or more and require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living, or both.
In order to treat this population effectively, collaboration with the patient's nonoral healthcare professionals such as their primary care provider, family members, and social workers, among others, is necessary in order to coordinate care and deliver optimal treatment.
This basic-level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienists, and assistants, reviews the oral effects of chemotherapy, including alterations in the oral mucosa; the different oral lesions and oral infections usually seen in patients undergoing chemotherapy; and how to best manage patients' oral health needs before, during, and after chemotherapy treatment. The dental professional's goals in caring for this segment of the patient population are to maintain the integrity of the oral mucosa, prevent secondary infection, provide pain relief, and maintain dietary intake.
An odontogenic infection is an infection of the alveolus, jaws, or face that originates from a tooth or from its supporting structures and is one of the most frequently encountered infections. This advanced-level course will examine common types and causes of odontogenic infections and discuss treatments available.
This basic-level course presents information on the health risks associated with mercury, radiation, caustic agents, nitrous oxide, oxygen and ethylene oxide, airborne particles and contaminants, latex allergies, white visible light and dental lasers, and bonding materials and acrylics. Also discussed are steps to help prevent carpal tunnel syndrome and minimize hazardous noise levels in dental practice.
Most current dental school curricula do not give dental students the appropriate knowledge base and clinical eperience to treat OSA patient. This recently updated Intermediate-level course discusses the latest evidence-based diagnostic approaches for OSA and outlines recommeneded treatment strategies..
Poor nutrition can lead to caries, periodontal problems, and loss of teeth and bone. In addition, nutritional problems can put our patients at risk for certain systemic diseases and conditions such as heart problems, cancer, stroke and diabetes. This basic-level course reviews several important areas concerning proper nutrition for the dental patient including antioxidants, sugars, fats, the special nutritional needs of pregnant patients, and the intake of mercury, calcium and Vitamin D.
Since the goal of any successful procedure is to ensure selection of the right drug at the right time and at the right dose, for the right patient and the right procedure, the information presented in this intermediate-level course should be considered essential knowledge for all oral healthcare practitioners.
This basic-level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienists, and assistants, reviews the clinical presentation, medical and dental management, and dental treatment considerations of Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular accidents/stroke, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. As the U.S. population ages and life expectancy increases, the incidence of these four common neurologic diseases is increasing as well. Therefore the dental practitioner must be able to recognize, treat and accommodate these patients accordingly.
This basic-level course describes the difference between the hospital and community strains of MRSA. The epidemiology, risk groups, and modes of transmission of MRSA are outlined along with the currently available treatment modalities. This course will help clinicians incorporate the CDC Guidelines into their clinical practice to reduce cross-transmission of potential pathogens.
Appropriate for dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants, this basic-level course reviews the type, severity and stages of mental illnesses, the effect that mental illness has on mood, motivation and self-esteem, the lack of perception a person with mental illness may have of their oral health problems, the effect of patients' habits and lifestyles on their ability to sustain self-care and dental attendance, the side effects of medication and finally, how to help these patients overcome barriers to oral health care.
This course begins by presenting conditions involving damage to the hard dental structures caused by fluoride, anticonvulsants, chemotherapeutics, and medications such as bisphosphonates that are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw. Tooth discoloration is also discussed. Damage to oral soft tissues is then reviewed. Color changes to the oral mucosa, including mucosal pigmentation and black hairy tongue, are described. Drug-related gingival enlargement and other mucosal disorders, oral allergic reactions, drug-related white lesions, and conditions of the salivary glands are examined.
This basic-level course highlights the varied clinical presentations of exostoses within the oral cavity, their clinical and radiographic presentations, their pathophysiology, their implications for oral health, and options for treatment. With this knowledge, dental professionals can address such growths if they become or could become a barrier to oral function, interfere with a patient's ability to maintain proper oral hygiene, or preclude the ability to place partial or complete dentures.
This basic-level course distinguishes between the definitions of fear, anxiety, and phobia. It identifies the most common reactions that accompany phobias and common reasons for avoidance of dental treatment. The course describes the behavioral treatment options for anxious dental patients and techniques for reducing general anxiety in dental patients. This course will provide dental professionals with basic knowledge and information on dental fear and avoidance that will enable them to diagnose and manage patients who experience dental-related anxiety, fear, and phobia. This knowledge will help dental professionals prepare for these patients and their unique needs and help these patients feel more comfortable seeking their care in the future.
This basic-level course discusses each of the malocclusions listed in the 2014 American Association of Orthodontists publication "Problems to Watch for in Growing Children" and makes suggestions for reliable and realistic therapeutic interventions. Appropriate for all dental professionals, the course discusses the etiology of malocclusions in the developing dentition, including oral and nonnutritive habits, and discusses the management of these malocclusions.
This intermediate-level course reviews the pharmacology of antimicrobial agents and presents current guidelines and therapeutic choices to optimize antibiotic prescribing practices. The course addresses the differences among antibiotics typically prescribed for orofacial infections and the selection and timing of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics for special populations such as orthopedic, cardiac, and immunosuppressed patients. The principles learned are directly applicable to the appropriate selection of antimicrobial therapy for the pregnant or breast-feeding patient and assist in recognizing those patients with a significant allergic history and determining how to best, and safely, treat them.
Audio Book Available | By becoming familiar with the basic pharmacology of the most commonly abused drugs, the risk factors for developing addictive behaviors and the manner in which these medications are commonly acquired, dental providers will be able to curb prescribing practices that contribute to this growing problem and better serve their patients and their communities as informed prevention advocates.
The purpose of this basic-level course is to provide dental providers with an appreciation of the scope of the problem of prescription drug abuse and a realization that the misuse and abuse of these drugs likely take place among the patient populations they serve. By becoming familiar with the pharmacology of the most commonly abused drugs, the risk factors for developing addictive behaviors, and the manner in which these medications are commonly acquired, dental providers will be positioned to curb prescribing practices that contribute to this growing problem and will be better able to serve their patients and their communities as informed prevention advocates.
This basic-level course describes current recommendations on the benefits of using denture adhesives. The course discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various denture cleansing methods. Health risks and recommendations associated with wearing dentures overnight are discussed, and methods for proper denture storage are outlined and reviewed. This course can help dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants improve the health and quality of life of their patients who wear dentures.
The importance of a balanced, nutritious diet to the health of the human body is widely recognized. However, significant numbers of people do not have properly balanced diets and many compensate for this deficiency by ingesting supplemental vitamins and minerals.Most of the common pronouncements with regard to the health benefits of vitamins and minerals address systemic health, but despite its importance to oral health, the relationship of dietary intake and vitamins to the health of the oral cavity is rarely discussed. To fully grasp the role of vitamins in the health of the oral cavity, it is necessary to understand the nature and characteristics of vitamins and minerals and their actions within the body. This basic-level course seeks to remedy this information deficiency and provide dentists, hygienists, and assistants with information on the effect vitamins and minerals have on oral health.
This intermediate-level course is geared toward all levels and disciplines of healthcare and public health professionals. The course provides information about recently discovered and reoccurring viruses. Knowledge of the origin, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of these viruses may aid in reducing the prevalence of the infections they cause.
Patient demand for tooth whitening remains high, and oral health providers have more options for treatment, so it is important that clinicians evaluate which of these options is best for their patients. This basic-level course reviews concepts in vital tooth whitening, including recommendations in ADA guidelines; describes evolving issues in vital tooth whitening (e.g., measurement of color change, the color rebound effect, and safety issues); and explains the risk and benefits of established and new technologies.
Appropriate for all members of the dental team, this basic-level course describes the most recent research on tooth polishing, including its effects on tooth structure and enamel and discusses traditional rubber-cup polishing as well as contraindications to the use of oral prophylaxis pastes. The course presents the evolution of air polishing, its effects on gingiva, hard tooth structures, and dental restorations, as well as its indications and contraindications. Criteria for patient selection, preparation for air polishing, and air polishing techniques are outlined as well as steps for air polishing unit cleanup. Case scenarios highlight the concepts presented and reinforce learning.
Oral healthcare professionals are routinely involved with the selection and prescription of Local Anesthetics to address orofacial pain. Upon completing this intermediate-level course, the learner will be able to discuss the differences among Local Anesthetics typically prescribed for orofacial pain This updated 2018 edition incorporates the findings of these latest research papers as well as current guidelines from regulatory and professional authorities, while continuing to emphasize the founding principles of appropriate Local Anesthetics prescribing.
Oral healthcare professionals are routinely involved with the selection and prescription of analgesics to address orofacial pain. Upon completing this intermediate-level course, the learner will be able to discuss the differences among analgesics typically prescribed for orofacial pain This updated 2018 edition incorporates the findings of these latest research papers as well as current guidelines from regulatory and professional authorities, while continuing to emphasize the founding principles of appropriate analgesic prescribing.
Across the United States, dentists prescribe 10.4% of all outpatient antibiotics, making them the top antibiotic prescribers after primary care physicians. After completing this intermediate-level course, the participant will be able to discuss the differences among antibiotics typically prescribed for orofacial infections. The principles learned will also be directly applicable to the appropriate selection of antimicrobial therapy for the pregnant or breastfeeding patient and will aid in recognizing those patients with a significant allergic history and how to best and safely treat them.
Oral healthcare professionals (OHCPs) are routinely involved with the selection and prescription of medications for their patients. This course is designed to help them become better-informed prescribers of the top three drug classes employed in dentistry: antibiotics, analgesics, and local anesthetics. This intermediate-level course is specifically designed for all members of the dental healthcare team: dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Since the goal of providing medication in dentistry is to ensure selection of the right drug at the right time and at the right dose for the right patient and the right procedure, the information presented in this course should be considered essential knowledge for all OHCPs, both seasoned and newly credentialed.
This basic-level course provides a review of the classification of impactions of third molars and the common surgical instruments and techniques employed for the extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. No surgical technique is without the potential for complications, and the most serious complications resulting from the extraction of wisdom teeth involve trauma to the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves, which can result in temporary or permanent adverse neurosensory changes. Using the empiric information presented in this course about impacted wisdom teeth, the potential difficulty of their extraction, and postsurgical complications, clinicians can determine whether their surgical expertise is at a high enough level for the extraction of an impacted wisdom tooth or if they should refer such patients to an oral surgeon.
Head and neck cancer refers to a group of biologically similar cancers that start in the lip, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, and larynx. About 40% of head and neck cancers occur in the oral cavity, 15% in the pharynx, 25% in the larynx, and the remaining 20% are in the salivary glands and thyroid. Overall, they account for more than 500,000 cases annually worldwide. This advanced-level course will examine the risk factors, causes, and recent research associated with these cancers.
Appropriate for dentists, hygienists and assistants, this intermediate-level course reviews recent studies that link periodontal disease to systemic diseases and reviews how periodontal therapy affects these conditions. The course includes information relating to diabetes, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory tract diseases, chronic kidney disease, cancer, obesity, and pregnancy. This course provides the dental professional with the most recent information with which to make evidence-based treatment recommendations, as well as information to pass on to their patients who may have these diseases.
This intermediate-level course addresses current concepts regarding the relationship between oral health and vascular and cardiovascular diseases, including the impact on oral health of common cardiovascular pharmacotherapies. This course is intended for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, as well as other healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients with selected vascular and cardiovascular diseases.
This basic-level course familiarizes dental professionals with hypertension, its types, and its impact on general wellness. The course reviews the pathophysiology of hypertension and describes nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of hypertension, including lifestyle and dietary modifications, as well as pharmacologic approaches. A firm understanding of this prevalent disease and its implications for treatment in the dental office will help all dental professionals provide the highest quality of care to their dental patients.
This intermediate-level course provides dentists, hygienists, and assistants with a review of TMJ disorders, their etiologies, and proper imaging techniques for accurate diagnoses of these disorders. The course overviews the most common TMJ-related disorders and the most appropriate imaging techniques for each. The latest recommendation that imaging should be based on the clinical needs of the patient and not obtained routinely is discussed.
This basic-level course provides dental professionals with the tools to identify the need for sealants and the type of sealant that is best for the patient and the dentition. The course reviews the pathophysiology of tooth decay, the role of sealants in preventing pit and fissure caries, and the different types of sealants in clinical use. The course focuses attention on the ADA's clinical recommendations and presents the proper clinical steps to take in treating pit and fissure caries, from assessing the need for sealants to applying them.
This intermediate-level course will provide an overview of the significant effect of the social determinants of oral health on children, including socioeconomic status (SES), family structure, social environment, culture and healthcare delivery systems. The course will also examine the significant oral health inequalities that exist among children and the importance of social environment on oral health outcomes.
This basic-level course discusses the importance of proper isolation and appropriate pre-access buildups. Proper access for endodontic treatment is also explained. The course describes effective strategies for cleaning and shaping the root canal system, followed by an outlining of the principles of obturation. The importance of the coronal restoration and access sealing for successful endodontic treatment is explained. Finally, the course brings all of these elements together in a case scenario, which, though it cannot cover all contingencies, can help the general dentist, as well as dental hygienists and dental assistants, to understand the basics of root canal therapy and the strategies involved in improving endodontic outcomes.
This basic-level course provides an overview of the systemic factors and systemic diseases associated with the development of periodontal disease. The course outlines the ways that various factors can contribute to periodontal disease and can predict the progress of disease. Clinical steps in assessing and diagnosing periodontal disease are also discussed.
This basic-level course discusses the issue of bioaerosol and reviews interventions that can dramatically reduce bioaerosol contamination during the delivery of oral care. Dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants can benefit from the overview of the risks of contamination associated with bioaerosol. This course discusses management of dental unit waterline contamination and suggests appropriate dental equipment necessary for providing sterile water for oral surgical procedures. Finally, the course reviews the importance of preprocedural rinsing as a step in reducing the potential for infection for both practitioner and patient.
Appropriate for all dental professionals, this basic-level course describes anxiety and its relationship to dental pain. A variety of nonpharmacological therapies and their benefits are presented, including auditory and visual programming, hypnosis, biofeedback, acupuncture, and brainwave entrainment. The course ends with a discussion of the effective "people skills" that all members of the dental team can use to help reduce patient anxiety.
This basic-level course is intended to educate dentists and dental hygienists regarding RAU so that they are better equipped to effectively diagnose and treat their patients with this condition. It is important to provide clinicians with necessary information regarding diagnosis (including differential diagnosis) and treatment. The section on etiopathology discusses the immune-relate etiology of RAU as well as the gaps in our understanding of what causes RAU. The course addresses the epidemiology and general characteristics of RAU and differentiates the forms of the condition. Research on the link between celiac disease and RAU is presented and discussed. Finally, the course presents information on the varied treatment modalities for RAU.
Numerous medical conditions, as well as certain medications taken over long periods, can cause RAS. When a patient is experiencing these painful ulcerations, the dental professional must have sufficient knowledge to identify the predisposing factors for RAS and make the connection between the occurrence of RAS and certain medical conditions or medication usage.
After reviewing the etiology and symptoms of RAS, as well as the predisposing factors for development of these oral ulcerations, this basic-level course outlines the process for diagnosing RAS and the treatments currently available for the different types of RAS.
Because implant placement is now a routine aspect of periodontal practice, radiographic assessment of implant sites is discussed. Dentists and surgeons rely on radiographs to determine appropriate implant sites and to ensure proper implant placement. CBCT is introduced as a necessary tool in implant placement planning, in creating surgical guides, and as an aid in diagnosing periimplantitis. This course is appropriate for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.
The course discusses common radiographic techniques and challenges, including common radiographic mistakes, working with patients with a severe gag reflex, dimple-down techniques, paralleling techniques, focal lengths, and collimation. Darkroom and film processing techniques, including the proper use of safelights and film baths, are explained along with common radiographic and processing errors. The course emphasizes the importance of standardized, consistent film mounting in the darkroom for accurate interpretation of patient x-rays.
Understanding the forms of radiation and the risks and effects associated with dental radiography is essential to providing the highest quality of care to the dental patient. Appropriate for all dental professionals, this basic-level course outlines radiation risk, the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the measurement and regulation of radiation dose. The course discusses the ALARA concept, its application in dentistry, and best practices to reduce radiation exposure to the dental patient.
This basic-level course reviews the properties of an ideal provisional restoration as well as its uses and indications. The course describes the available fabrication techniques (direct and indirect) used for simple and complex prosthetic restorations, identifies available materials used to fabricate them, and discusses the available materials used for provisional cementation as well as the clinical steps involved. In order to provide quality restorations with a good long-term prognosis, dentists need to be familiar with the various restorative materials available, including provisional restorations.
This basic-level course discusses the current state of medical/dental errors and patient safety. Along with highlighting the different types and causes of medical/dental errors, strategies to prevent or control medical/dental errors are presented, and methods of identifying, analyzing, and reporting medical/dental errors are discussed. The course is intended for all dental professionals, including general dentists and dental specialists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. This course is not designed to give legal advice. Rather, its purpose is to provide dental professionals with information on current issues in medical/dental errors and patient safety.
This basic-level course addresses the pros and cons of placing mercury-containing amalgam restorations and the most commonly used alternative (composite resin); reviews current materials used for tooth restorations; gives an historical perspective; discusses the positions of authoritative bodies on the safety efficacy compatibility and serviceability of mercury-amalgam restorations; summarizes recent research comparing amalgam versus composite restorations; describes a number of safety issues that have arisen regarding the use of composite resins; and discusses clinical and cost comparisons of resin composites and amalgam restorations.
Probiotics for the oral cavity is an exciting area of dental care research and eventually may offer a novel and effective approach to treating or even preventing periodontal disease and denture stomatitis. This basic-level course familiarizes dental professionals with the role of intestinal flora in the human gut, the physiological effects of probiotics in the body, and the specific function of probiotics in the oral cavity.
This basic-level course describes the role that saliva plays in general and dental health, as well as the causes and consequences of compromised salivary production. Dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants will gain an understanding of the scope of this problem, and increase their ability to identify and manage this condition.
This basic-level course details the three major components of managing medical emergencies in the dental office: prevention, recognition, and treatment. Appropriate for all dental professionals, the course discusses the importance of obtaining a thorough medical history of each patient as well as the need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of life-threatening emergencies. The symptoms and treatment for patients with inadequate blood flow to the brain, inadequate delivery of oxygen to the brain, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and allergic reactions are described.
Appropriate for all dental professionals, this basic-level course describes the nature and prevalence of halitosis, reviews the steps for assessing a patient with halitosis, discusses the oral, nonoral, and systemic origins of halitosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment planning. The course also discusses the relationship between oral malodor and oral disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis. Case scenarios highlight the concepts presented and reinforce learning.
Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are commonly encountered in dental practice. This course presents the epidemiology, prevention, general treatment considerations, and protocols for management of the full array of TDI, allowing the dental team to triage, treat, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these injuries.
Intended for all dental professionals, this basic-level course addresses patient selection, radiation safety, risk reduction, and infection control as related to dental radiology. To provide the highest quality of care and safety to patients, dental professionals must be familiar with these guidelines and the latest best practice involving radiographic procedures.
This basic-level course describes the CDC and ADA guidelines, recommendations, and procedures necessary to control cross-contamination and infection that is possible with dental radiography. This course provides dental professionals with information regarding the recommended infection control practices that can significantly reduce cross-contamination in dental radiology, thus protecting patients and practitioners alike. The course examines infection control procedures at different stages and in different settings of radiology, including film exposure, film processing, extraoral procedures, and during the use of digital radiography.
This course outlines the risks and effects of radiation, as well as procedures to reduce radiation exposure to the dental patient. The course provides current research to aid dental practitioners in properly educating their patients about the level of radiation received through dental radiographs. The course outlines current radiation procedures and guidelines that the entire dental team can discuss and review to determine where improvements may be made to the radiation safety procedures currently in use in their dental practice.
Radiation safety remains a top concern for the general public, and the dental professional needs to stay up to date on the latest research and current thinking on radiation safety and protection. This basic-level course reviews the biologic effects of radiation, the methods used in radiation measurement, and the potential sources of radiation exposure. This course discusses radiation safety and protection measures for both patients and dental healthcare workers. Perhaps most important, this course prepares all dental professionals – including dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants – to accurately respond to patient questions and concerns about radiation safety in dentistry.
Radiation safety remains a top concern for the general public, and the dental professional needs to stay up to date on the latest research and current thinking on radiation safety and protection. This basic-level course reviews the biologic effects of radiation, the methods used in radiation measurement, and the potential sources of radiation exposure. This course discusses radiation safety and protection measures for both patients and dental healthcare workers. Perhaps most important, this course prepares all dental professionals â€“ including dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants â€“ to accurately respond to patient questions and concerns about radiation safety in dentistry.
Dental Public Health (DPH) and the private practice model of care delivery together bear the responsibility of assuring optimal oral health for all Americans - individuals and populations. One of the greatest barriers to oral health care is a lack of dental services. This can be called the greatest unmet oral health need in the United States. This intermediate-level course, appropriate for all dental professionals, outlines dental public health, its focus, infrastructure and how the dental public health workforce strives to improve populations oral health.
This intermediate-level course reviews the complications seen in the oral cavity associated with oral cancer therapies and how to help patients mitigate these complications. This information will help the practitioner provide up to date care for their patients undergoing oral cancer treatment.
Pediatric patients with complex healthcare needs are a unique and growing population. Given the current awareness that dental caries are still a significant problem in the pediatric population and that they result from an imbalance of multiple factors, the dental team has the responsibility to identify and educate patients and their families about this disease. This intermediate-level course provides dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with information on selected morbidities that are typical in children and adolescents, and aids clinicians in developing rational thought processes for gathering information from these patients and their caregivers.
Dental implants are an established treatment modality in dentistry with a high rate of success and few complications. However, complications do occur despite careful treatment planning and meticulous execution of clinical procedures. Surgical complications that can occur include infection, bleeding, wound dehiscence, primary instability of the implant, neurosensory changes, and tissue emphysema. After the implant is osseointegrated, other complications may arise, including inflammatory peri-implant lesions. All these conditions increase the risk of poor outcomes, including implant loss. This intermediate-level course addresses complications associated with dental implants and reviews selective options for their management.
VIDEO COURSE | The practice of dentistry is multifaceted. Not only must dental professionals have the technical skills to treat patients appropriately and safely, they must also practice within a professional ethical framework that is sometimes more challenging than the dental procedures themselves. This interactive video course, created with adult learners in mind, uses engaging video and animations to help dental professionals gain a better understanding of dental ethics, professionalism and current ethical challenges to the profession, with particular emphasis on the impact of the digital age.
The practice of dentistry is multifaceted. Not only must dental professionals have the technical skills to treat patients appropriately and safely, they must also practice within a professional ethical framework that is sometimes more challenging than the dental procedures themselves. This basic-level course helps dental professionals gain a better understanding of dental ethics, professionalism, and current ethical challenges to the profession, with particular emphasis on the impact of the digital age. Dental professionals may be eager to incorporate the latest technologies into their practices and into their private lives, but must consider the ethical implications of doing so.
The practice of dentistry is multifaceted. Not only must dental professionals have the technical skills to treat patients appropriately and safely, they must also practice within a professional ethical framework that is sometimes more challenging than the dental procedures themselves. This basic-level course helps dental professionals gain a better understanding of dental ethics, professionalism, and current ethical challenges to the profession, with particular emphasis on the impact of the digital age. Dental professionals may be eager to incorporate the latest technologies into their practices and into their private lives, but must consider the ethical implications of doing so.
This basic-level course provides dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with guidelines for recognizing and diagnosing dental erosion and offers suggestions for preventive interventions, including record-keeping, nutritional counseling, fluoride use, and home-care procedures. The course also discusses recommended restorative treatment options.
This course addresses common complications associated with oral surgical procedures and outlines the evidence-based methods to prevent, minimize, or manage them. Patient education about what to expect postoperatively helps minimize emergency after-hours phone calls and the need for additional treatment. Proper techniques of postoperative pain or infection control may also facilitate the healing process and reduce both postoperative complications for patients and stress for practitioners.
The challenge for the medical and dental staff of correctional institutions in the United States is to provide basic healthcare and dental treatment amid the multiple needs of the inmate population and within the budgetary limitations of the county, state, and federal government.
This basic-level course will highlight the unique environment within the correctional system and the challenges of providing dental care therein.
The continuing need for denture treatment in the Unites States means a necessary relevance for updated concepts and procedures in dental curriculums. New light has been shed on different denture treatment approaches, such as digital technology, which is likely to be more commonplace for the near future. Such modern techniques may not have been initially taught to current practitioners in the field.
This intermediate-level course is intended to serve as both a review and an introduction to some of the more recent information and developments in complete denture fabrication. After completing this course, the practitioner will be better equipped to provide quality denture care in a less stressful and more cost-effective manner for both clinician and patient.
Pain is a basic human response and a major trigger to seeking health care. Although all dentists are trained in managing acute pain, far fewer dentists are trained in treating, chronic pain conditions. Yet chronic orofacial pain is common and may occur after routine dental procedures. This intermediate-level course provides dental healthcare professionals with an overview of the nature and scope of chronic pain, as well as basic skills for effective assessment and adjunctive treatments of chronic orofacial pain conditions and related problems.
This basic-level course reviews commonly misused substances, discusses their origins, and details the physical effects they can produce. Special consideration is given to substances commonly available in the dental office and the medications dental professionals may administer and prescribe. The course also highlights the signs and symptoms of drug abuse, slang associated with misused and abused substances, and the common routes of administration for each substance so that dental professionals will be able to identify patients who may be abusing certain substances.
The purpose of this course is to familiarize the dental hygienist with the document Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings, 2003. The 2016 CDC document, Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settings: Basic Expectations for Safe Care will be introduced and discussed, and new information relevant to the practice of dental hygiene published by CDC since 2003 will be presented.
Working as partners with patients, dental professionals can aid in the prevention of dental caries and help maintain patients' overall health by offering nutritional counseling and behavior modification techniques. The incidence of caries in the United States could decrease significantly as dental professionals implement the advances available for early caries detection, recommend anti-caries treatments, and offer nutritional analysis and counseling. This basic-level course is intended to equip all members of the dental team with the skills needed to realize this overriding goal.
This basic-level course provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of caries management and applies the concepts of CAMBRA. This course will help dental practitioners become better equipped to halt the progression of caries with as little hard tissue damage as possible, thereby benefiting their patients. And the learner will be introduced to different protocols in order to treat caries using the medical model.
After completing this basic-level course, dental professionals will understand the history of adhesive bonding systems and will be able describe the necessary conditions for ideal adhesive bonding. Dental professionals will also gain a basic understanding of different dental adhesive systems and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each.
This intermediate-level course is appropriate for dentists, hygienists, and assistants, and familiarizes the dental team with the presentation of benign jaw lesions, which they may encounter in their dental practice. This course outlines the different benign lesions that may present in the hard tissue of the jaws. The subject material is categorized into ondontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, benign odontogenic tumors, benign nonodontogenic tumors, and other lesions that fall outside of those categories such as giant cell granuloma, ossifying fibroma and lingual salivary gland defects. The clinical and radiographic, CBCT and MRI presentations of these lesions are discussed.
This basic-level course is designed for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants interested in becoming more knowledgeable and proficient in the use and application of dental dams. The course outlines the benefits of using dental dams in clinical practice, provides an overview of the types of dental dams currently available, and describes the equipment needed to use dams successfully. The steps for standard, quickdam, and slit dam application, inversion, and removal are identified. Minor challenges, such as maneuvering around a bridge, are also addressed.
The growth of the older adult population is expected to rise dramatically with the aging of the baby boomer generation, the first members having turned 70 in 2016. Because age is a significant risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), the incidence of this devastating disease is also expected to rise in the United States. This course focuses on the key components of assessment and interventions specific to patients experiencing dementia. The knowledge gained from completion of the course provides healthcare providers with the information and tools to recognize the complexity of issues surrounding a progressive diagnosis of AD.
A wide variety of materials used for the construction of dental restorations, prostheses, and dental implants have the potential to cause allergic reactions among dental patients.This basic-level course reviews the importance of metals for human health, identifies common harmful metals and their role in disease, and discusses hypersensitivity reactions, with particular regard to metal allergies in medical and dental patients. Such an understanding will help dental professionals make better-informed decisions about which biomaterials are the safest and most effective.
In today's aesthetically conscious world, more patients demand restorations that mimic the color and appearance of their natural teeth and therefore project an image of health and wellness. This basic-level course describes the evolution of aesthetic direct posterior restorative materials and their limitations and goes on to identify the characteristics, indications, and limitations of aesthetic indirect inlays and onlays. Through the use of clinical case reports, dental professionals learn the steps needed to properly execute aesthetic indirect inlays and onlays, thereby expanding their clinical armamentarium.
This intermediate-level course begins with a foundational review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS, the modes of transmission, and methods of prevention in the dental healthcare setting.
This basic-level course reviews the latest research and recommendations regarding the use of dental sealants. The course discusses the epidemiology of caries disease and the materials currently used in dental sealants. Research findings on the effectiveness of sealants are presented, as well as the clinical considerations that must factor into any practitioner's decision to use dental sealants. Techniques for actual placement of dental sealants are outlined along with information on post-placement evaluation and follow-up care. Finally, safety concerns, including systemic toxicity, are discussed.
Oral cancers are part of a group of cancers commonly referred to as head and neck cancers, and of all head and neck cancers, they comprise about 85% of that category. Treatment of oral cancers is ideally a multidisciplinary approach involving the efforts of surgeons, radiation oncologists, chemotherapy oncologists, dental practitioners, nutritionists, and rehabilitation and restorative specialists. This intermediate-level course outlines the dental professionals role in helping their patients before, during and after oral cancer therapy.
This basic level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienists and assistants, reviews the background of deinstitutionalization which created the demand for special needs dentists in the community, and discusses how through hospital affiliation, mobile dentistry, and relationships with specialists, treating special needs patients can be a fulfilling and important part of their practice. These relationships can enhance the professional reputation of the dentist and provide professional partnerships and practice growth.
A solid understanding of the theory, application, and effects of hypnosis can help dental practitioners navigate patient fear of, or interest in, its use. The course describes the measures individual dental practitioners can take to influence patient acceptance of hypnotism. It also provides advice on how dental practitioners might find appropriate training in hypnosis and incorporate aspects of hypnotism into their practices.
This basic-level course, appropriate for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, provides an overview of oral hygiene for dental implants, including the identification of similarities and differences in the periodontal structure surrounding a natural tooth versus that surrounding a dental implant. The course discusses the clinical procedures used to evaluate the status of dental implants as healthy, ailing, or failing and the methods employed in professionally cleaning implants and improving home care techniques.
The ability to light cure dental resins "on demand" in the mouth has revolutionized modern dentistry. Consequently the dental light curing unit (LCU) has become an indispensable piece of equipment in almost every dental office. Despite its routine use, the curing light and how it should be used is not well understood by most operators. This intermediate-level course discusses the current knowledge of dental curing lights and their use in dentistry.
This is a basic laser operations course for every member of the dental team. This course provides outlines for safety regulations, discusses varying laser instruments, and the unique effects of laser energy on oral tissue. It also compares benefits and drawbacks of laser use. Several different clinical procedures are included with raw photo documentation. Every laser device is especially designed for a unique dental condition. A practicing clinician must understand each these devices and their power to interact with their target tissues. Whether the laser is removing decay, reshaping the gingiva, removing lesions or used in a whitening procedure, the same underlying principle of laser use apply. In this course, the fundamental principle taught is that the least amount of energy or power should be used to reach the specific treatment outcome.
This intermediate-level course reviews the microbiology of periimplantitis, perimucositis, and periodontitis. It also explains both the systemic and environmental risks associated with implant failure including smoking, diabetes, osteoporosis, hormonal disturbances, the use of bisphosphonates and the role of genetics. The impact of combinations of risk factors is also discussed. Armed with this knowledge, all dental professionals including dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, will be better prepared to help their patients avoid implant failure.
Collaboration among caregivers can help to improve the management of chronic diseases. For example, dentists already act as de facto oral physicians, playing a pivotal role in monitoring medical conditions such as hypertension during patient visits. Dentists, therefore, can be a valuable medical resource.
This basic-level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants, reviews chronic care models relating to different chronic diseases and the ways that these models lead to improved treatment outcomes for the dental and medical patient.
This basic-level course addresses the abuse of inhalants, specifically nitrous oxide, in the dental setting. The course discusses different types of inhalants, the reasons for their abuse, and the types of individuals who commonly abuse them. The effects and dangers of inhalant abuse are discussed. The oral, physical, and psychological effects and manifestations of inhalant abuse are described. Legal regulations governing nitrous oxide are presented.
This basic-level course provides an overview of standard precautions and routine practice for infection control in a dental practice. The concept of the "chain of infection" is explained along with the use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, masks, and eyewear. Proper instrument sterilization techniques are outlined.
Infection control is vital to the safe, effective treatment of patients in the dental office. This basic-level course is a refresher for dental healthcare professionals on infection control, cross contamination, and instrument sterilization techniques. Areas addressed include infection control guidelines; understanding standard versus universal precautions; sterilization and disinfection of patient care items; goals for ensuring disease containment through proper instrument recirculation techniques; handling of contaminated instruments from the treatment room through precleaning, cleaning, and preparation for sterilization; the most commonly used (and accepted) methods of dental instrument sterilization; environmental infection control; dental unit waterlines, biofilm, and water quality; and other infection control considerations.
This basic-level course explains proper use and handling of personal protective equipment and gives recommendations for appropriate gloving and hand hygiene. Instrument sterilization and disinfection, sterilization protocols, and the three categories of sterilizer monitoring are also reviewed. The CDC's recommendations for managing environmental infection control are included. By understanding the concepts underlying infection control and by incorporating effective infection control protocols into their practice, dental healthcare providers will protect their patients and themselves.
This basic-level course reviews published guidelines and principles of infection control and outlines the methods that can be used to effectively break the chain of infection, including the use of work practice controls, barriers and/or personal protective equipment, and practices of effective cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilization. This course focuses on the six core elements of infection control and is relevant to all dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.
Dentists must observe microscopic attention to detail in the use of both materials and techniques to achieve the clinical and aesthetic excellence that their patients seek. With higher expectations in quality dental cosmetics, the need for function-with little to no intervention- has created a challenge with many clinicians.
This basic-level course, designed for all dental team members, explains the basics of incorporating magnification into dental practice. The course describes the evolving use of magnification in the field of dentistry. The concept of the magnification continuum is also explained, and the challenges of incorporating magnification into daily dental practice are identified.
This basic-level course addresses current thinking about the challenges dental professionals face with providing oral healthcare services for people with special needs. It identifies the factors that hinder access to dental care and presents strategies to improve the provision of care for the special needs population. The course includes recommendations for the management and treatment of special needs patients.
This intermediate-level course familiarizes dental professionals with different types of nerve injuries related to implant placement and their causes, and the areas within the oral cavity at increased risk for such injuries. The course discusses how the dental professional can properly plan implant placement to avoid nerve injury and how to treat nerve injuries if they do occur.
This course will discuss ways in which healthcare providers can incorporate humor into care of individuals and their families. To support the suggestions regarding humor in practice, this text offers discussion of various studies pointing out the efficacy of humor in health care. The target population for this basic-level course is any dental professional who works with patients, as well as any healthcare provider who wants to improve his or her knowledge of therapeutic humor.
This basic-level course discusses the complexity of DUWL contamination and the importance of monitoring contamination levels. The methods used to control microbial growth and the limitations associated with current approaches are also explained. Participants learn how to judiciously choose a DUWL disinfectant best suited to their practice needs.
This intermediate level course for healthcare professionals is an introduction into the complex crime of human trafficking, with a focus on sex and labor trafficking and the common symptoms and conditions that occur in trafficked persons. The course provides insights into the facts surrounding human trafficking and relevant health risks for the trafficked person.
Dental professionals are well positioned to play a role in the education, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of HPV-related oral cancer. Regular dental checkups that include a comprehensive head and neck examination can be beneficial in the early identification of precancerous and cancerous lesions. Dental patients may have questions about their risk of infection, their risk of developing cancer, and the protective value of available HPV vaccines. The established relationship between HPV and oral cancer will require dental providers to expand traditional patient education topics (i.e., tobacco and alcohol) to include information on HPV and develop communication skills appropriate for responding to patient inquiries and concerns as part of a comprehensive approach to preventive oral health care.
This basic-level course describes the prevalence and risk for interactions involving herbal medicines and lists the herbal medications and drugs of greatest concern to dental professionals. A stoplight approach to risk assessment is discussed and a general strategy to avoid the most common herbal-drug interactions is suggested. Critical patient populations (including women who are pregnant or breast feeding) are emphasized and specific herbal-drug interactions that can lead to increased bleeding, decreased blood glucose levels, and sedation changes are discussed.
The purpose of this course is to help all dental professionals gain an appreciation for the significant opportunities the aging population will bring to their practices, along with the challenges. This course will provide dental professionals with basic knowledge and information in gerontology and geriatric dentistry that will enhance their ability to diagnose and manage older patients who have been affected by age-dependent or age-associated changes. The target audience for this basic-level course will be dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants of all ages and experience levels.
This basic-level course discusses the pre-eruptive and post-eruptive mechanisms of fluoride action as well as the sources of fluoride and recommended intake levels. The course examines the latest research on the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety of community water fluoridation in the United States. The processes of demineralization and remineralization are explained along with the risks of fluoridation and the recommended use of fluoride in high-caries-risk patients.
This basic-level course provides dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with the most up-to-date information on fluoride and fluoridation, including its perceived benefits and documented efficacy. Concerns about the connections between systemic fluoride and certain disease processes are discussed as well as the importance of educating patients on the important role of fluoride.
This intermediate level course, appropriate for dental professionals, discusses oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, their clinical presentation, and how to diagnose and manage these potentially malignant disorders.
This basic-level course introduces the concept of ethical decision making and provides three ethical decision-making models to help dental healthcare providers navigate complex dilemmas. Case studies are used to help reinforce important ideas and provide a practical application of the concepts. The ability to systematically analyze and solve any ethical dilemma is arguably as important as the technical skills required to perform clinical dentistry.
Early recognition of tooth wear is essential to successful management and prevention of disease progression. The primary dental care team is in the ideal position to provide this care to patients with dental erosion and other forms of tooth wear. This intermediate-level course provides dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with an overview of the etiology of tooth wear and explains the pathogenic processes involved in tooth erosion. It describes the necessary protocol for assessing erosion in patients and making a diagnosis. Preventive measures and treatment approaches are included.
Medical emergencies in the dental office are an unavoidable part of the profession. Even though precautions to prevent such events are undertaken, these events are inevitable and the dental practitioner must be prepared. Emergencies can range from relatively benign conditions to life-threatening situations. Although uncommon, major emergencies, including cardiac, pulmonary, and neurologic events, can occur. The dentist must be able to manage such situations until emergency medical responders arrive to the clinic. Medications administered can also cause adverse reactions intraoperatively or even postoperatively. This course will provide the dental practitioner with an overview of emergency adjuncts and medications.
The purpose of this basic-level course is to equip dental professionals to recognize the classifications and classic signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, to grasp the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes, and to identify periodontal and other oral manifestations associated with diabetes, including attachment loss, alveolar bone loss, gingivitis, xerostomia, and oral candidiasis. Moreover, this course discusses dental treatment considerations for patients with diabetes, adverse interactions between hypoglycemic medications and adjunct dental treatment medications, and emergency management procedures for patients with diabetes.
This intermediate-level course familiarizes dental professionals with developmental disorders of the jaws and teeth. Because some presentations of developmental anomalies are associated with a larger systemic syndrome, it is important for dental practitioners to recognize these disorders early so that the patient may be treated accordingly or referred to an appropriate specialist if surgery is required.
Most denture patients, as well as patients with removable orthodontic appliances, tend to be haphazard in practice when it comes to cleansing their dental appliances. Dental professionals, most notably dental hygienists, play an important role in controlling denture contamination and in instructing patients in the proper care and sanitization of removable dentures and orthodontic appliances. This basic-level course reviews the diverse colonization of microorganisms found on dentures and the associated oral and systemic health risks, the correlation between candidal infestation of dentures and denture-induced stomatitis, and the pros and cons of various denture cleansing methods.
Dentin hypersensitivity is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in a dental practice. Educating patients regarding the risk factors associated with their condition is just as essential as encouraging their involvement with the different in-office and at-home treatment options available. Etiological factors associated with dentin hypersensitivity and various treatment modalities, ranging from over-the-counter toothpastes to lasers in the dental office, will be presented. This intermediate-level course is intended for general practitioners of dentistry. It will help general dental practitioners, as well as the hygienists and assistants in their team, establish a diagnosis and develop plans to treat dentin hypersensitivity with a range of options tailored for the particular etiology encountered per the individual patient's mouth.
The purpose of this intermediate-level course is to familiarize the dentist and every member of the dental team with nonpharmacological techniques and strategies for guiding and supporting fearful dental patients. The course will address the nature and prevalence of dental fear and how to identify and guide the fearful patient. The learner will be made aware of the ways in which his or her own behavior, demeanor, and appearance, as well as the ambiance of the dental office, may contribute to dental fear.