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Disciplines: Respiratory Therapy
Hours: 2 Contact Hours
Author(s): David Chang, EdD, RRT-NPS
Peer Reviewer(s): Beth Eliot, MS, RRT-NPS
Item#: V7256
Contents: 1 Course Book (40 pages)

Recognition and Management of Hypoxia

Price $19.95
Item # V7256
When available, the Online Course format is included with the hard copy, eBook, or audio book formats!

Release Date: April 15, 2016

Expiration Date: April 16, 2019


The purpose of this course is to familiarize respiratory therapists with the relationship between hypoxia and hypoxemia, as well as their causes and treatments. Hypoxia (including hypoxic hypoxia, stagnant hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, and anemic hypoxia) is a complex problem requiring intricate knowledge and skill on the part of the respiratory therapist. This course empowers the respiratory therapist to understand and properly treat hypoxia resulting from multiple and varied causes. A new section in this revision provides the information on air travel by hypoxic patients as a high altitude environment poses special challenges to these patients. 


Course Objectives

  • Distinguish the difference between hypoxia and hypoxemia
  • Describe the cause and treatment for hypoxic hypoxia, stagnant hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, and anemic hypoxia
  • List at least 3 signs and 3 symptoms of hypoxia
  • Describe the critical PaO2 and SaO2 values on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
  • Classify the severity of hypoxemia using PaO2 and SaO2 values
  • Write the arterial oxygen content equation and explain the role of hemoglobin on oxygen content
  • Define refractory hypoxemia and list the treatment options for this condition
  • List the common physiological responses to hypoxia
  • Define hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and describe its adverse outcomes
  • Describe the treatment plan for hypoxia


David Chang, EdD, RRT-NPS, is a professor of the Department of Cardiorespiratory Care at the University of South Alabama, in Mobile. He has served on many committees and in many capacities at the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), National Board for Respiratory Care, and Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care. Dr. Chang’s special interest is in research and mechanical ventilation. He has published five textbooks and developed an open source website,, for students and practitioners. In his spare time, Dr. Chang conducts training sessions for students and educators at the state, national, and international levels.


Beth Eliot, MS, RRT-NPS, is an independent facilitator for patient advocacy for the underprivileged in her immediate community. Beth received her master’s degree in microbiology from Georgetown University, a bachelor’s degree in emergency medical care from Loma Linda University, and an AS RT from Victor Valley College. She gained her experience working at Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children’s Hospital in the NICU, PICU, and emergency departments, at Loma Linda University as an adjunct faculty member, and at Victor Valley College as a clinical instructor.

  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.