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“Every 4½ minutes, a baby is born with a birth defect in the United States. That translates into nearly 120,000 babies affected by birth defects each year” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2014a). Congenital abnormalities or birth defects are anatomical or functional conditions present at birth that are not within normal range. These aberrations may not be evident or manifest any effect(s) immediately after birth. The defects may be isolated or have features of one of the many genetic syndromes (Jorde, Carey, Bamshad, & White, 2003). Major defects have been noted in approximately 3% of the population (Atkinson & Slotnick, 2007). Even though many of the more than 4,000 known congenital problems (ranging from minor to serious) affect only a few individuals, collectively the number is considerable, making birth defects the leading cause of death in the first year of life (Nemours Foundation, 2010).
This course concentrates on congenital defects that affect the pulmonary system. The course begins by discussing genetic inheritance and the factors that influence it, as well as other causes of congenital pulmonary problems, such as maternal and gestational influences. The impact of these conditions on the respiratory processes is also discussed, and examples of the various conditions are provided throughout the course. The purpose of the course is to provide nurses and other healthcare professionals with basic knowledge of these anomalies to assist in prenatal and postnatal patient and family education and to promote early recognition and intervention. The goal is to provide a knowledge base for healthcare professionals who care for mothers in prenatal clinics, labor and delivery, postpartum, and newborn nursery areas. The course will also provide a basic orientation to birth defects affecting the pulmonary system for nurses working or planning to work with high-risk newborns.
- Identify the gestational periods with the greatest risk of congenital anomalies affecting the pulmonary system.
- Describe common causes of chromosomal disorders.
- Identify examples of autosomal and sex chromosome aberrations and potential effects on the pulmonary system.
- Differentiate among the single gene disorders: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked recessive.
- Describe examples of the single gene disorders and their effect on the pulmonary system.
- Describe examples of non-classical inheritance patterns.
- Recognize environmental (maternal and gestational) factors that have a potential impact on the pulmonary system.
- Describe how the respiratory processes are affected by the various embryonic and fetal disorders.
Anita Carroll, RN, MSN, EdD, has taught all levels of professional nursing for more than 30 years. She taught in the bachelor of science in nursing program at West Texas A&M University in Canyon, Texas. She has taught courses in maternal-newborn health, neonatal health, pharmacology, management, and fundamentals. She has also helped develop master’s level tracks and courses for neonatal clinical nurse specialists and nursing education. She was a childbirth educator for 10 years and implemented a March of Dimes grant. She has presented more than 120 programs in maternal-newborn nursing to community hospitals and has certified numerous nurses as neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation providers and instructors. She received the Texas Nurse of the Year Award from the Texas Nurses Association in 1996, as well as many other teaching awards throughout her career.
- Contact hours will be awarded for up to one (1) year from the date the course is ordered, unless otherwise indicated with an expiration date.
- You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
- Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
- All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.