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  • Dentists
  • Dental Hygienists
  • Dental Assisting
Hours: 3 Contact Hours
  • Evan B. Rosen, DMD, MPH
  • John F. Kross, DMD, MSc
Peer Reviewer(s): Veronica Powers, DMD
Item#: L0786
Contents: 1 Course Book (36 pages)
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Pros and Cons of Amalgam Versus Composite Restoration, Updated 1st Edition

Price $29.95
Item # L0786
When available, the Online Course format is included with the hard copy, eBook, or audio book formats!

Release Date: July 30, 2013

Review Date: October 6, 2016

Expiration Date: October 5, 2019


For many years, the only available choices for restorations were metal- or ceramic-based materials. However, in the past few decades significant advances have been made in restorative materials and in the bonding systems for retaining a restoration in the prepared tooth. These changes have brought additional direct restorative materials (such as newer generations of composite resins), as well as new indirect restorative materials (such as lithium disilicate and zirconia). Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing have changed the way that clinical dentistry is practiced, and the practitioner’s utilization of dental materials has evolved with these advances. As a result of these changes, practitioners have shown greater interest in resin composite materials and other amalgam alternatives because of perceived cosmetic, clinical, and health issues with amalgam. This course is designed for dental assistants, dental hygienists, and dentists interested in a review of current materials used for tooth restoration.

This basic-level course addresses the pros and cons of placing mercury-containing amalgam restorations and the most commonly used alternative (composite resin); reviews current materials used for tooth restorations; gives an historical perspective; discusses the positions of authoritative bodies on the safety efficacy compatibility and serviceability of mercury-amalgam restorations; summarizes recent research comparing amalgam versus composite restorations; describes a number of safety issues that have arisen regarding the use of composite resins; and discusses clinical and cost comparisons of resin composites and amalgam restorations.




AGD Subject Code: 251
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.


Course Objectives

  • Discuss the history of amalgam and composite resin restorations.
  • Identify the safety issues and controversies associated with amalgams.
  • Identify the safety issues and controversies associated with composite resins.
  • Compare the clinical features of amalgams and composite resin restorations.


Evan B. Rosen, DMD, MPH, is a maxillofacial prosthodontist and lecturer at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Dr. Rosen completed his master’s degree in public health at Florida International University, his doctor of dental medicine degree at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, and his prosthodontics residency at the Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Rochester, New York. Dr. Rosen continued his professional training by completing a fellowship in maxillofacial prosthetics at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Dr. Rosen is actively engaged in research focusing on quality of life outcomes and the management of medically complex patients. 

John F. Kross, DMD, MSc, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.


Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.