Disciplines: Dentists
Hours: 40 Contact Hours
Item#: LDUOH

 

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Item # LDUOH
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Oral Effects and Dental Management of Chemotherapy Patients, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0823  

Review Date: January 27, 2017

Expiration Date: January 26, 2020

Original Release Date: July 30, 2013

Cancer patients who receive radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and bone marrow or solid organ transplants are at increased risk for orofacial infection and systemic complications. The breakdown of the oral mucosa in patients with cancer may be caused by primary effects of the infectious agent, underlying systemic disease, or the toxic and immunosuppressive effects of therapy.

This basic-level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienists, and assistants, reviews the oral effects of chemotherapy, including alterations in the oral mucosa; the different oral lesions and oral infections usually seen in patients undergoing chemotherapy; and how to best manage patients’ oral health needs before, during, and after chemotherapy treatment. The dental professional’s goals in caring for this segment of the patient population are to maintain the integrity of the oral mucosa, prevent secondary infection, provide pain relief, and maintain dietary intake.

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 750
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Explain alterations seen in the oral mucosa caused by chemotherapy.
  • Recognize the different oral lesions seen in the immunocompromised patient.
  • Identify the sources of oral infections seen in immunocompromised patients.
  • Outline the protocols for the dental management of patients before, during, and after chemotherapy.
Author Bio(s)

 

Evan B. Rosen, DMD, MPH, is a maxillofacial prosthodontist and lecturer at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Dr. Rosen completed his master’s degree in public health at Florida International University, his doctor of dental medicine degree at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, and his prosthodontics residency at the Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Rochester, New York. Dr. Rosen continued his professional training by completing a fellowship in maxillofacial prosthetics at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Dr. Rosen is actively engaged in research focusing on quality of life outcomes and the management of medically complex patients.

Ellen Dietz-Bourguignon, BS, CDA-Emeritus, earned her bachelor of science degree in allied health education in dental auxiliary utilization and a community college teaching certificate from the State University of New York at Buffalo. She began her dental career as an associate-degreed certified dental assistant in private practice. Following a 7-year dental assisting teaching career at Orange County Community College, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Erie County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, and Niagara County Community College, she began writing on dental topics for Dental Assisting Magazine, eventually rising to the position of managing editor. Ms. Dietz-Bourguignon has worked in dental marketing, project management, and product development at Semantodontics and in legal administration for the Arizona State Board of Dental Examiners. She has published five books in the dental assisting market, including Dental Office Management and Safety Standards and Infection Control for Dental Assistants, and has been keynote speaker at the American Dental Assistants Association Annual Session. Her articles have appeared in numerous journals, including The Dental Assistant, Dentist, The Dental Student, Dental Economics, RDH, and Dental Teamwork.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for 4 years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

The Hypertensive Patient: Classification and Management, Updated 1st Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0838  

Review Date: January 25, 2017

Expiration Date: January 24, 2020

Original Release Date: July 31, 2013

 

Hypertension affects approximately one third of all adults in the United States. Understanding the types, effects, and treatments of hypertension is essential to anticipating how hypertension may affect the dental patient. Many patients may experience an elevation in blood pressure at the time of their visit as the result of fear and anxiety related to dental treatment. In addition, certain pharmacologic therapies for hypertension have side effects of oral significance.

This basic-level course familiarizes dental professionals with hypertension, its types, and its impact on general wellness. The course reviews the pathophysiology of hypertension and describes nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of hypertension, including lifestyle and dietary modifications, as well as pharmacologic approaches. A firm understanding of this prevalent disease and its implications for treatment in the dental office will help all dental professionals provide the highest quality of care to their dental patients.

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 750
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe hypertension and its impact on general health.
  • Identify essential and secondary hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of essential hypertension.
  • Describe lifestyle and dietary modifications as nonpharmacologic treatment options for hypertension.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of current drug classes in pharmacologic treatment of hypertension.
  • Describe the dental management of hypertensive patients.
Author Bio(s)

 

David A. Verhaag, MD, maintained a private practice as a family physician in Roseville, California, for more than 30 years. He received his bachelor of arts degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his medical training at the School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr. Verhaag completed his internship at UCLA Harbor General Hospital and his residency at the UC Davis Medical Center (formerly known as the Sacramento Medical Center) in family practice. He was founder and partner in the Oakridge Medical Group in Roseville, California, where he practiced for 17 years. Dr. Verhaag was an active staff member of the Sutter Roseville Medical Center clinical faculty, member of the UC Davis Department of Family Practice, and member of the Quality Review Committee of the Medical Board of California. Dr. Verhaag co-published the article “Prescribing for Chronic Pain” in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Toni M. Roucka, RN, DDS, MA, is an associate professor of restorative dentistry at Southern Illinois University, School of Dental Medicine, Edwardsville. She maintains an active nursing license and is a Fellow of the American College of Dentists and immediate past president of the American Society for Dental Ethics. Dr. Roucka obtained her DDS degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry and master’s degree in population health – bioethics from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Roucka is a nationally recognized speaker on the subject of ethics in dentistry and has taught restorative dentistry at both Marquette University and the Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine. As a volunteer, she has provided dental care to underserved populations in Guatemala, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, and Tanzania.

Medication-Related Damage to Oral Hard and Soft Tissues, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0805  

Release Date: July 27, 2010

Review Date: December 23, 2016

Expiration Date: December 22, 2019

 

Even when used according to recommendations, many common medications can damage, discolor, and otherwise adversely affect the hard and soft oral structures. Dental professionals must be prepared to address such conditions, which are common among dental patients. Dental professionals are increasingly observing the oral effects of polypharmacy in larger numbers of their patients. Furthermore, given the constant evolution of pharmaceutical formulations, dental professionals must keep abreast of new medications and their effects on the oral hard and soft tissues. The purpose of this basic-level course is to prepare dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants to identify these medication-related adverse effects and treat or assist in treating them.

This course begins by presenting conditions involving damage to the hard dental structures caused by fluoride, anticonvulsants, chemotherapeutics, and medications such as bisphosphonates that are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw. Tooth discoloration is also discussed. Damage to oral soft tissues is then reviewed. Color changes to the oral mucosa, including mucosal pigmentation and black hairy tongue, are described. Drug-related gingival enlargement and other mucosal disorders, oral allergic reactions, drug-related white lesions, and conditions of the salivary glands are examined. 

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 741
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Identify common chemical- and medication-related damage to oral hard tissues and their dental management.
  • Identify common damage to oral soft tissues resulting in color changes to the oral mucosa.
  • Describe drug-related effects on the oral soft tissues, including gingival enlargement, mucosal disorders, white lesions, and salivary gland disorders.
Author Bio(s)

 

Evan B. Rosen, DMD, MPH, is a maxillofacial prosthodontist and lecturer at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Dr. Rosen completed his master’s degree in public health at Florida International University, his doctor of dental medicine degree at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, and his prosthodontics residency at the Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Rochester, New York. Dr. Rosen continued his professional training by completing a fellowship in maxillofacial prosthetics at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Dr. Rosen is actively engaged in research focusing on quality of life outcomes and the management of medically complex patients.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

Making Treatment of Special Needs Patients an Important Part of Your Growing Dental Practice

Price: $19.95 
Item # L0801  

Release Date: December 12, 2016

Expiration Date: December 11, 2019

 

Treating patients with special needs can be integral to a growing dental practice and financially beneficial.  There is a significant demand for dentists in the community to provide care to these patients.  As a result of the deinstitutionalization of special needs care in the 1980s, many of these patients lost their dental home and their caregivers have been frustrated by the lack of availability of dentists to treat patients with special needs. The knowledge gained through residency training puts these dentists at an advantage to treat this sector of the population and can aid in growing their private practice.  

This basic level course, appropriate for dentists, hygienists and assistants, reviews the background of deinstitutionalization which created the demand for special needs dentists in the community, and discusses how through hospital affiliation, mobile dentistry, and relationships with specialists, treating special needs patients can be a fulfilling and important part of their practice.  These relationships can enhance the professional reputation of the dentist and provide professional partnerships and practice growth.

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 750
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 2 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the demand for special needs dentistry and the training that helps in providing that care.
  • Identify the considerations in planning and delivering dental treatment to patients with special needs.
  • Recognize the importance of hospital affiliation in treating special needs patients.
  • Discuss the challenges in treating geriatric patients with special needs.
  • Identify the limitations of mobile dentistry.
  • Recognize the opportunities that dental practitioners treating patients with special needs enjoy in working with specialists and conducting clinical research.
Author Bio(s)

 

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilita­tion facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day man­agement of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

 

Content Editor

Herbal-Drug Interactions Important in Dentistry

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0790  

Release Date: November 2, 2016

Expiration Date: November 1, 2019

 

In the United States and Europe, over-the-counter natural herb products constitute a rapidly growing market, having joined prescription and over-the-counter medicines that were originally derived from herbs. Interest in herbal medicine has been facilitated by multiple factors, including the perception that pharmaceutical medications are expensive, overprescribed, and often dangerous. Alternatively, herbal medicines are often perceived as being “natural,” and therefore safe.

Herbal medicines now fall into the category of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). With the increasing popularity of CAMs, a new issue has arisen: herbal-drug interactions. Oral healthcare professionals must be aware not only of these products’ effects and advantageous synergies, but also of their side effects and possible or probable adverse drug reactions.

This basic-level course describes the prevalence and risk for interactions involving herbal medicines and lists the herbal medications and drugs of greatest concern to dental professionals. A stoplight approach to risk assessment is discussed and a general strategy to avoid the most common herbal-drug interactions is suggested. Critical patient populations (including women who are pregnant or breast feeding) are emphasized and specific herbal-drug interactions that can lead to increased bleeding, decreased blood glucose levels, and sedation changes are discussed. 

 

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 016

 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the prevalence and risk for interactions involving herbal medications.
  • List the herbal medications and drugs of greatest concern to dental professionals.
  • Describe the ways in which levels of risk for herbal-drug interactions are evaluated.
  • Identify the medical and dental implications for drug interactions with specific herbal medications.
  • Discuss the special considerations of herbal-drug interactions for pregnant or breastfeeding dental patients.
Author Bio(s)

 

Mark Donaldson, BSP, RPh, PharmD, ACPR, FASHP, FACHE, received his baccalaureate degree from the University of British Columbia and his doctorate in clinical pharmacy from the University of Washington. He has further completed a residency at Canada’s largest tertiary care facility, Vancouver General Hospital, and is the senior executive director of Pharmacy Clinical Services at Vizient. Dr. Donaldson is a clinical professor in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Montana in Missoula and clinical associate professor in the School of Dentistry at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. He has a special interest in dental pharmacology and has lectured internationally to both dental and medical practitioners. Dr. Donaldson has a number of published works in the peer-reviewed literature and has co-authored textbook chapters. He spent three years in Japan focusing on cross-cultural communication and internationalization. He currently serves on the Editorial Board for The Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), is board-certified in healthcare management, and is the past-president of the American College of Healthcare Executives’ Montana Chapter. In 2016 he was recognized by the Academy of General Dentistry as the recipient of the Dr. Thaddeus V. Weclew Award. This award is conferred upon an individual who has made outstanding contributions to the art and science of dentistry and/or enhanced the principles and ideals of the Academy.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Toni M. Roucka, RN, DDS, MA, is an associate professor of restorative dentistry at Southern Illinois University, School of Dental Medicine, Edwardsville. She maintains an active nursing license and is a Fellow of the American College of Dentists and immediate past president of the American Society for Dental Ethics. Dr. Roucka obtained her DDS degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry and master’s degree in population health – bioethics from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Roucka is a nationally recognized speaker on the subject of ethics in dentistry and has taught restorative dentistry at both Marquette University and the Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine. As a volunteer, she has provided dental care to underserved populations in Guatemala, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, and Tanzania.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Comprehensive Review for Dental Professionals

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0776  

Release Date: August 26, 2016

Expiration Date: August 25, 2019

 

Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder, causing a range of harmful clinical, social, and economic sequelae. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. The prevalence of OSA is increasing rapidly. Dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants are well positioned to recognize this disorder, refer patients for appropriate testing, and successfully treat patients with oral appliances. Dental professionals trained in treating sleep-disordered breathing are a vital part of a multidisciplinary team on the forefront of dealing with this serious public health issue.

This course reviews OSA from a dental perspective. It addresses current findings on the links between overall health and OSA and cites common presenting symptoms likely to be encountered in the dental practice. This intermediate-level course discusses the latest evidence-based diagnostic approaches for OSA and outlines recommended treatment strategies, including oral appliances and surgical intervention, to mitigate the health impact of this common condition. 

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 160
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the importance of sufficient sleep.
  • Describe the prevalence, etiology, and risk factors associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
  • Explain the clinical consequences of untreated OSA.
  • Describe the screening and diagnosis of OSA.
  • Identify the treatment options for OSA.
Author Bio(s)

 

Jeffrey L. Tarlow, DDS, earned his DDS from Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry, Cleveland, Ohio, before pursuing a Clinical Fellowship in Prosthetic Dentistry at Harvard University School of Dental Medicine and a residency in fixed and removable prosthodontics at the Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic in Boston. He served as a dentist for the Department of Veterans Affairs for more than 40 years, serving 31 of those years as a staff prosthodontist. Dr. Tarlow was director of the General Practice Residency Program at the Manhattan campus of the Department of Veterans Affairs’ New York Harbor Healthcare System from 1985 to 2016. Dr. Tarlow was a peer reviewer for The International Journal of Prosthodontics for 5 years and a principal investigator for two major dental implant clinical research studies; he has had 13 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. He has lectured extensively on restorative and implant treatment for the geriatric patient.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Raymond K. Martin, DDS, MAGD, graduated in 1979 from Texas Tech University with a bachelor’s degree in microbiology and earned his DDS in 1983 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He then went on to study at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in the General Practice Residency Program. Dr. Martin began his work in dental risk management after being awarded a Mastership in the Academy of General Dentistry. He consults with 20 legal firms as an expert witness and lectures extensively on dental risk management and ethics in dentistry. In addition, Dr. Martin teaches CAD/CAM dentistry as a CEREC mentor and has served as a Key Opinion Leader for an international dental implant manufacturer. Dr. Martin has maintained a private practice for more than three decades and is currently president of the Massachusetts Dental Society. He has served the American Dental Association on the Future of Dentistry work group and is currently a member of the Council on Government Affairs.

Vitamins, Minerals, and the Oral Cavity, 2nd Edition

Price: $19.95 
Item # L0762  

Release Date: January 21, 2011

Review Date: July 28, 2016

Expiration Date: July 27, 2019

 

The importance of a balanced, nutritious diet to the health of the human body is widely recognized. However, significant numbers of people do not have properly balanced diets and many compensate for this deficiency by ingesting supplemental vitamins and minerals.Most of the common pronouncements with regard to the health benefits of vitamins and minerals address systemic health, but despite its importance to oral health, the relationship of dietary intake and vitamins to the health of the oral cavity is rarely discussed. To fully grasp the role of vitamins in the health of the oral cavity, it is necessary to understand the nature and characteristics of vitamins and minerals and their actions within the body. This basic-level course seeks to remedy this information deficiency and provide dentists, hygienists, and assistants with information on the effect vitamins and minerals have on oral health.

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 150

 
Western Schools designates this activity for 2 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Differentiate between water-soluble and lipid-soluble vitamins.
  • List the required minerals and their absorption requirements.
  • Discuss the role of vitamins and minerals in oral health.
Author Bio(s)

 

J. Anthony von Fraunhofer, MSc, PhD, FRSC, is professor emeritus, University of Maryland DentalSchool, Baltimore, Maryland, where he also served as director of biomaterials research in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. He has written more than 400 scientific papers and 16 books, and contributed chapters to 15 monographs on dental biomaterials and materials science. Dr. von Fraunhofer is the author of the well-regarded monographs Dental Materials at a Glance and Research Writing in Dentistry, published by Wiley-Blackwell. His special interests are the biomechanical properties of materials used in medicine and dentistry, and the degradation, wear, and corrosion of materials in the biosystem.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

 

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

 

Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration: Epidemiology, Differential Diagnosis, and Therapy

Price: $19.95 
Item # L0740  

Release Date: July 18, 2016

Expiration Date: July 17, 2019

 

Recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU), also known as recurrent aphthous stomatitis and canker sores, is a common oral ulceration condition. RAU is widely considered to be a chronic inflammatory condition that affects approximately 20% of the population. These lesions tend to be episodic and may repeatedly arise over time in otherwise healthy individuals. RAU is a common lesion that presents to all clinical dentists. It is important for dentists to be knowledgeable concerning this pathologic condition in order to alleviate patients’ concerns and pain.

This basic-level course is intended to educate dentists and dental hygienists regarding RAU so that they are better equipped to effectively diagnose and treat their patients with this condition. It is important to provide clinicians with necessary information regarding diagnosis (including differential diagnosis) and treatment. The section on etiopathology discusses the immune-relate etiology of RAU as well as the gaps in our understanding of what causes RAU. The course addresses the epidemiology and general characteristics of RAU and differentiates the forms of the condition. Research on the link between celiac disease and RAU is presented and discussed. Finally, the course presents information on the varied treatment modalities for RAU.

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 734

 
Western Schools designates this activity for 2 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Outline the epidemiology of oral recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU).
  • Differentiate the three forms of RAU.
  • Describe the immune-related etiology for RAU.
  • Discuss differential diagnoses involving RAU.
  • Identify the treatments available for RAU.
Author Bio(s)

 

Ronald S. Brown, DDS, MS, Dipl ABOM, FAOM (HON), FACD, FICD, is a professor in the Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, Division of Oral Diagnosis, at Howard University College of Dentistry. Dr. Brown attended the University of Maryland and graduated from Georgetown University School of Dentistry in 1971. After serving in the United States Army Dental Corps, Dr. Brown began in private dental practice in Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia. In 1988, he completed postdoctoral education at Georgetown University with an MS in pharmacology and oral medicine. Dr. Brown has held faculty positions at Georgetown University School of Dentistry and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. Currently, he is a professor of oral diagnosis at Howard University College of Dentistry (HUCD), a clinical associate professor of otolaryngology at Georgetown University Medical Center, and a volunteer clinical research associate at the Hematology Branch of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health. He is also the director of continuing dental education at HUCD. Dr. Brown’s areas of research include oral medicine, drug-induced gingival overgrowth, clinical trials, and oral inflammatory diseases (chronic oral graft-versus-host disease). He is a reviewer for JADA; General Dentistry; Oral Diseases; Journal of Dental Education; Postgraduate Medicine; and Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. He is on the editorial board of Dentistry Today and Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry. He has more than 100 published peer-reviewed journal articles and more than a dozen combined published books and book chapters and has lectured and presented widely, both nationally and internationally. His mentors include Dr. William K. Bottomley, Dr. William T. Beaver, Dr. Sol Silverman, Jr., and Dr. Samuel Dreizen. For the past several years, Dr. Brown has been continuously listed as one of the top 100 CDE providers by Dentistry Today. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Oral Medicine (ABOM), past-president of the ABOM, and a past-president of the American Academy of Oral Medicine. 

LaToya Barham, DDS, is an assistant professor and predoctoral program clinical coordinator in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Howard University College of Dentistry (HUCD). Dr. Barham earned a bachelor of science degree in biology from Clark Atlanta University in 2000 and a DDS from HUCD in 2004. She went on to earn a certificate in pediatric dentistry from HUCD in 2006. Dr. Barham is the creator and director of H.O.P.E. Yes!, a 3-week summer enrichment program that exposes underrepresented minority elementary, middle, and high school students to careers in dentistry and allied health sciences. In addition to her academic appointment, Dr. Barham maintains private practices in Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Raymond K. Martin, DDS, MAGD, graduated in 1979 from Texas Tech University with a bachelor’s degree in microbiology and earned his DDS in 1983 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He then went on to study at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in the General Practice Residency Program. Dr. Martin began his work in dental risk management after being awarded a Mastership in the Academy of General Dentistry. He consults with 20 legal firms as an expert witness and lectures extensively on dental risk management and ethics in dentistry. In addition, Dr. Martin teaches CAD/CAM dentistry as a CEREC mentor and has served as a Key Opinion Leader for an international dental implant manufacturer. Dr. Martin has maintained a private practice for more than three decades and is currently president of the Massachusetts Dental Society. He has served the American Dental Association on the Future of Dentistry work group and is currently a member of the Council on Government Affairs.

Improving Oral Health Care for Patients With Special Needs, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0734  

Release Date: July 27, 2010

Review Date: June 2, 2016

Expiration Date: June 1, 2019

 

Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of people with special healthcare needs, and the trend is expected to continue. Population shifts as a result of immigration and other socio-economic factors will persist in straining the current delivery system. The special needs population already faces barriers in obtaining oral health services, and this situation will continue to deteriorate under the present system of care.

As policy makers wrestle with major health disparities experienced by people with special health-care needs, dental professionals must be at the forefront of ensuring adequate delivery of oral healthcare services to this population.

This basic-level course addresses current thinking about the challenges dental professionals face with providing oral healthcare services for people with special needs. It identifies the factors that hinder access to dental care and presents strategies to improve the provision of care for the special needs population. The course includes recommendations for the management and treatment of special needs patients.

 

AGD Subject Code: 753
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Define patient with special needs.
  • Describe the oral health challenges of patients with special needs.
  • Identify the factors that hinder access to dental care for patients with special needs.
  • Discuss recommendations for the management and treatment of patients with special needs.
  • Identify strategies for improving oral health and access to care for patients with special needs.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, MSc, DMD, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Toni M. Roucka, RN, DDS, MA, is an associate professor of restorative dentistry and associate dean for academic affairs at Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine in Alton, Illinois. She maintains an active nursing license and is a Fellow of the American College of Dentists and immediate president of the American Society for Dental Ethics. Dr. Roucka obtained her DDS degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry and master’s degree in population health – bioethics from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Roucka is a nationally recognized speaker on the subject of ethics in dentistry and has taught restorative dentistry at both Marquette University and Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine.

HPV and Oral Cancer: Exploring the Link

Price: $49.95 
Item # L0731  

Release Date: May 16, 2016

Expiration Date: May 15, 2019

 

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States; an estimated 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV and each year approximately 14 million people are newly infected. There is a growing body of research demonstrating the increasing incidence of HPV-related cancer in the oropharynx, which includes the tonsillar area and base of the tongue. As is the case with other cancers, early detection and timely treatment of HPV-related oral cancers can reduce the number of deaths from this disease.

Dental professionals are well positioned to play a role in the education, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of HPV-related oral cancer. Regular dental checkups that include a comprehensive head and neck examination can be beneficial in the early identification of precancerous and cancerous lesions. Dental patients may have questions about their risk of infection, their risk of developing cancer, and the protective value of available HPV vaccines. The established relationship between HPV and oral cancer will require dental providers to expand traditional patient education topics (i.e., tobacco and alcohol) to include information on HPV and develop communication skills appropriate for responding to patient inquiries and concerns as part of a comprehensive approach to preventive oral health care.

This intermediate-level course provides dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with general information about HPV, evidence of the association between oral HPV and oral cancer, and effective ways to further communicate this information to patients. This course provides dental professionals with information that will enable them to effectively meet the challenges they face as the link between HPV and oral health continues to emerge.

 

AGD Subject Code: 750
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 5 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the human papillomavirus (HPV), including its prevalence, risk factors, symptoms, and links to cancer.
  • Describe oral HPV, including its prevalence, risk factors, symptoms, modes of transmission, and detection.
  • Discuss the prevalence, manifestations, and diagnosis of HPV-related oral cancer.
  • Explain the economic impact of HPV.
  • Identify the key tools for preventing the transmission of HPV.
  • Describe the dentist’s role in discussing HPV with patients.
Author Bio(s)

 

Virginia J. Dodd, PhD, MPH, RDH, received an associate of science degree in dental hygiene from St. Petersburg College in 1990 and an MPH in 1994 and PhD in 2000 in public health from the University of South Florida (USF). In 2001, Dr. Dodd became acting program director for the Florida Prevention Research
Center at USF and research assistant professor in the Department of Community and Family Health within the College of Public Health at USF. She subsequently joined the faculty at the University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville, initially as assistant professor and subsequently as associate professor in the Department of Health Education and Behavior, before becoming an associate professor in the Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science of the College of Dentistry at UF in 2011. Dr. Dodd has taught in the areas of human sexuality, health education theory, social marketing, and psychosocial issues across the lifespan. She has written and lectured extensively on HPV prevalence among female university students, oral cancer prevention knowledge and behaviors in community samples of adults, and oral cancer screening and patient education practices among dentists and dental hygienists, including their readiness to provide HPV information to patients.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

John Basile, DDS, DMSc, received his DDS degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and completed a one-year dental residency at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, DC. After practicing dentistry for three years, he began his oral pathology training at Harvard University Dental School and research training in a papillomavirus laboratory at Harvard Medical School, becoming a Fellow of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and graduating with a degree in oral biology in 2002. Dr. Basile was a post-doctoral Research Fellow at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, in Bethesda, Maryland, before taking his current position as an assistant professor at the University of Maryland Dental School in the Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences. He is also a member of the Molecular and Structural Biology branch of the Marlene and Stuart Greenebaum Cancer Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. Dr. Basile has been a board-certified oral and maxillofacial pathologist since 2008.

Radiologic Assessment of the Periodontal Patient

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0744  

Release Date: May 6, 2016

Expiration Date: May 5, 2019

 

Periodontal diseases are mainly the result of infections and inflammation of the gums and bone that sur-round and support the teeth. The prevalence of periodontitis in the United States is extensive. Forty-seven percent of adults aged 30 years and older have some form of periodontal disease.

Proper diagnosis is critical to effective periodontal treatment. This intermediate-level course reviews the importance of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of periodontal disease and outlines the types of radiographs that are needed as adjuncts to a clinical examination. The course outlines the benefits and limitations of conventional radiographs and discusses cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a potential tool to overcome those limitations.

Because implant placement is now a routine aspect of periodontal practice, radiographic assessment of implant sites is discussed. Dentists and surgeons rely on radiographs to determine appropriate implant sites and to ensure proper implant placement. CBCT is introduced as a necessary tool in implant placement planning, in creating surgical guides, and as an aid in diagnosing periimplantitis. This course is appropriate for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.

AGD Subject Code: 495
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the radiographs and radiographic methods used in the periodontal evaluation.
  • List the anatomical structures captured in radiographs that help to identify bone loss associated with periodontal disease.
  • Describe how cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) improves upon the limitations of conventional radiographs.
  • Recognize how current radiographic practices, including CBCT, aid in implant-associated treatments.
Author Bio(s)

 

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working as a general dentist, Dr. Powers became the lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provides comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity she performs surgical and simple extractions and root canals, and places crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. She created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic, and is especially adept in the treatment of anxious patients. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

 

Content Editor

Infection Control and Prevention in the Dental Office, 2nd Edition

Price: $39.95 
Item # L0730  

Release Date: May 10, 2013

Review Date: April 15, 2016

Expiration Date: April 14, 2019

 

During the delivery of dental care, both patients and dental healthcare workers can be exposed to a wide array of infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, influenza, and numerous other viral and bacterial infections. If recommended infection control practices are not followed for each and every patient contact, transmission of infection will occur. In order to minimize the risk of transmission of infectious disease, discipline-specific infection-control guidelines have been published. It is incumbent upon all dental healthcare providers to understand and comply with the principles of infection control whenever and wherever they provide treatment to a patient.

This basic-level course reviews published guidelines and principles of infection control and outlines the methods that can be used to effectively break the chain of infection, including the use of work practice controls, barriers and/or personal protective equipment, and practices of effective cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilization. This course focuses on the six core elements of infection control and is relevant to all dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.

Western Schools designates this activity for 4 continuing education credits.

AGD Subject Code: 148

Nevada - Fulfills your 4 hour infection control requirement.

This course should not be taken in conjunction with New York Infection Control and Prevention in the Dental Office, 2nd Edition (L0732).

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the responsibility of healthcare workers to ensure that they, and the personnel that they supervise, adhere to scientifically accepted principles and practices of infection control.
  • Outline the modes and mechanisms of transmission of pathogenic organisms in healthcare settings and the strategies for its prevention and control.
  • Identify the engineering and work practice controls used to reduce patient and healthcare worker exposure to potentially infectious material in healthcare settings.
  • Describe the selection and use of barriers and/or personal protective equipment in preventing patient and healthcare worker contact with potentially infectious material.
  • Identify how infection control principles and practices for cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization are used in healthcare settings to create and maintain a safe environment for patient care.
  • Outline the efforts taken to prevent and control infectious and communicable diseases in healthcare workers.
Author Bio(s)

 

Louis G. DePaola, DDS, MS, is a professor and the assistant dean of clinical affairs in the Department of Oncology & Diagnostic Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Dentistry in Baltimore, Maryland. He received his DDS in 1975 and completed a master of science degree in oral biology in 1981, both from the University of Maryland. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Oral Medicine and the American College of Dentists, and holds a certificate in prosthodontics. He is the director for dental training for the PA-Mid-Atlantic AIDS Education and Training Center and served as a member of the American Dental Association (ADA) Council of Scientific Affairs from 2002 to 2005. Dr. DePaola has presented at the national meetings of most major dental associations and at numerous international conferences. He has authored or coauthored more than 130 journal articles, book chapters, and abstracts. He serves as a consultant to the ADA, other professional groups, and private industry. Over the past 20 years, Dr. DePaola has been awarded more than 75 research and service grants, many in the field of antiplaque chemotherapeutic agents, HIV/AIDS, management of medically compromised dental patients, rapid salivary diagnostic testing, dental unit waterlines, and infection control.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Eve Cuny, MS, is the director of environmental health and safety, director of global initiatives, and an associate professor at the University of the Pacific Dugoni School of Dentistry. Ms. Cuny is a consultant to the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs and to the Education Committee of the FDI World Dental Federation. She has served as an expert reviewer and advisor for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; is past chairperson of the Organization for Safety, Asepsis and Prevention (OSAP); and has been a peer reviewer for dental journals and dental organizations. Ms. Cuny has written extensively on numerous aspects of infection control. She is primary author of the World Health Organization’s guide to infection control in oral health care, and has lectured on infection control and patient safety throughout the world.

The Impact of Vascular and Cardiovascular Diseases on Oral Health, 2nd Edition

Price: $39.95 
Item # L0755  

Release Date: July 27, 2010

Review Date: July 8, 2016

Expiration Date: July 7, 2019

 

The oral presentation of microvascular diseases such as diabetes is well documented, but many common cardiovascular conditions, including ischemic heart disease, also present with oral manifestations. In addition, patients with specific vascular diseases, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly called Wegener’s granulomatosis), may present with pathognomonic oral lesions. In some instances, oral involvement precedes the appearance of other symptoms or lesions at other locations. To aid in diagnosis and guide the approach to dental treatment, dental healthcare professionals should recognize oral manifestations of cardiovascular diseases and other systemic or multiorgan diseases with a vascular component. A thorough understanding of the potential oral side effects of therapeutic agents commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases is very helpful in overall patient management.

This intermediate-level course addresses current concepts regarding the relationship between oral health and vascular and cardiovascular diseases, including the impact on oral health of common cardiovascular pharmacotherapies. This course is intended for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, as well as other healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients with selected vascular and cardiovascular diseases.

 

AGD Subject Code: 730
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 4 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures

 

  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.

 

Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the prevalence and history of cardiovascular disease and its relationship with periodontal disease.
  • Describe the signs, symptoms, and oral manifestations of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
  • List oral presentations of cardiac agents used in treating cardiovascular disease.
  • Identify oral manifestations of congenital cardiovascular diseases and diseases with a vascular component.
  • Explain oral healthcare recommendations for patients with selected cardiovascular conditions.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, DMD, MSc, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Paul Subar, DDS, EdD, FACD, is an assistant professor of dental practice and director of the Special Care Clinic and Hospital Dentistry at the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco, California. Dr. Subar earned his bachelor’s degree in biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz; his DDS at the University of California, Los Angeles; his advanced training in hospital dentistry at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center; and his doctorate of education at the Benerd School of Education, University of the Pacific.

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

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