Disciplines: Dentist
Hours: 50 Contact Hours
Item#: LD2MN

 

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Minnesota 50-Hour Dentist Bundle


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Item # LD2MN
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Mental Health Issues and Special Care Patients

Price: $19.95 
Item # L0800  

Release Date: December 8, 2016

Expiration Date: December 7, 2019

 

Millions of adults in the U.S. experience mental illness in some form. Dentists must be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of mental illness and the effects certain disorders may have on oral health. Additionally, many antipsychotic medications have deleterious side effects that can impact oral health. Dental professionals should recognize these side effects, and be able to treat and advise their patients accordingly. Additionally due to the episodic nature of some mental disorders, the dental team must be flexible, be able to augment treatment schedules, and provide patient-focused care in order to accommodate the unique needs patients with mental illness present with.

Appropriate for dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants, this basic-level course reviews the type, severity and stages of mental illnesses, the effect that mental illness has on mood, motivation and self-esteem, the lack of perception a person with mental illness may have of their oral health problems, the effect of patients’ habits and lifestyles on their ability to sustain self-care and dental attendance, the side effects of medication and finally, how to help these patients overcome barriers to oral health care.   

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 750
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 2 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe different types of patient behaviors reflective of mental health issues that dental professionals may encounter in their practice.
  • Describe how mental illness may affect the oral cavity and the provision of dental care.
  • Recognize the comorbidities that may accompany mental illness and affect lifespan.
  • List the side effects of medications commonly taken by patients with mental illness.
  • Discuss the dental professional’s role in helping patients with mental illness overcome barriers to oral health care.
Author Bio(s)

 

 
Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

 

Content Editor

Periodontal Disease: Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, and Systemic Links, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0780  

Release Date: July 31, 2013

Review Date: September 9, 2016

Expiration Date: September 8, 2019

 

Periodontal disease is the primary cause of tooth loss in adults. Nearly half of all adults age 30 and older in the United States suffer from periodontal disease; the incidence of periodontal disease increases as people age, with approximately 70% of adults age 65 and older having the disease. The prevalence of periodontal disease varies among ethnic groups and between genders. Increased incidence of periodontal disease has been linked to poverty, lower levels of education, and smoking.

The symptoms of periodontal disease range from those that are nearly undetectable by the patient to those that are severe and alarming. All too often, periodontitis is a silent destroyer of oral health because pain is absent unless an acute infection occurs.

This basic-level course reviews the risk factors associated with periodontal disease, and discusses the potential links between periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The course describes the etiology and pathophysiology of periodontal disease, focusing on microbiology, viral causes, the autoimmune and inflammatory response, resident and infiltrating cells of the periodontium, and matrix metalloproteinases. The course prepares dental professionals to recognize periodontal disease and take steps to prevent this condition and to treat patients who already have or are at risk for developing periodontal disease.

 

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 490

 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the etiology and pathophysiology of periodontal disease.
  • Identify the risk factors for periodontal disease.
  • Describe the potential links between periodontal disease and systemic disease.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, DMD, MSc, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Raymond K. Martin, DDS, MAGD, graduated in 1979 from Texas Tech University with a bachelor’s degree in microbiology and earned his DDS in 1983 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He then went on to study at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in the General Practice Residency Program. Dr. Martin began his work in dental risk management after being awarded a Mastership in the Academy of General Dentistry. He consults with 20 legal firms as an expert witness and lectures extensively on dental risk management and ethics in dentistry. In addition, Dr. Martin teaches CAD/CAM dentistry as a CEREC mentor and has served as a Key Opinion Leader for an international dental implant manufacturer. Dr. Martin has maintained a private practice for more than three decades and is currently president of the Massachusetts Dental Society. He has served the American Dental Association on the Future of Dentistry work group and is currently a member of the Council on Government Affairs.

Benign Jaw Lesions

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0772  

Release Date: August 10, 2016

Expiration Date: August 9, 2019

 

Although benign conditions are non-cancerous, some benign conditions of the oral cavity may look like cancer or precancerous conditions. Often, patients have symptoms that include swelling, pain, tenderness, and unexplained tooth mobility; some tumors are discovered on routine dental x-rays, whereas others are found on routine examinations of the oral cavity and teeth. These tumors can impinge on local structures, causing damage to otherwise healthy tissue. Therefore it is important for the dental team to recognize the symptoms and radiographic presentations of lesions in order to treat affected patients or refer them in a timely manner.

This intermediate-level course is appropriate for dentists, hygienists, and assistants, and familiarizes the dental team with the presentation of benign jaw lesions, which they may encounter in their dental practice. This course outlines the different benign lesions that may present in the hard tissue of the jaws. The subject material is categorized into ondontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, benign odontogenic tumors, benign nonodontogenic tumors, and other lesions that fall outside of those categories such as giant cell granuloma, ossifying fibroma and lingual salivary gland defects.  The clinical and radiographic, CBCT and MRI presentations of these lesions are discussed.  

 

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 730

 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Identify the imaging and clinical presentation of odontogenic cysts.
  • Identify the imaging and clinical presentation of nonodontogenic cysts.
  • Identify the imaging and clinical presentation of benign odontogenic tumors.
  • Identify the imaging and clinical presentation of benign nonodontogenic tumors.
  • Identify the imaging and clinical presentation of cyst-like jaw lesions.
Author Bio(s)

 

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

 

Content Editor

Erosion-Related Tooth Wear: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment, 2nd Edition

Price: $39.95 
Item # L0757  

Release Date: July 25, 2010

Review Date: July 11, 2016

Expiration Date: July 10, 2019

 

Tooth wear is defined as the loss of dental hard tissue by a chemical or mechanical process that does not involve bacteria. The mechanisms of tooth wear include erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction. Dental erosion results from chemical processes and is an important cause of tooth tissue loss in both children and adults. The damage caused by erosion can be accelerated when it occurs in combination with attrition or abrasion.

Early recognition of tooth wear is essential to successful management and prevention of disease progression. The primary dental care team is in the ideal position to provide this care to patients with dental erosion and other forms of tooth wear. This intermediate-level course provides dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants with an overview of the etiology of tooth wear and explains the pathogenic processes involved in tooth erosion. It describes the necessary protocol for assessing erosion in patients and making a diagnosis. Preventive measures and treatment approaches are included.

 

AGD Subject Code: 741

 

 
Western Schools designates this activity for 4 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Explain the etiology of tooth wear and the pathogenic process of tooth erosion.
  • Describe the protocol in patient assessment and diagnosis of erosion.
  • Describe prevention and restorative treatment approaches for erosion-related tooth wear.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, DMD, MSc, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

The Impact of Vascular and Cardiovascular Diseases on Oral Health, 2nd Edition

Price: $39.95 
Item # L0755  

Release Date: July 27, 2010

Review Date: July 8, 2016

Expiration Date: July 7, 2019

 

The oral presentation of microvascular diseases such as diabetes is well documented, but many common cardiovascular conditions, including ischemic heart disease, also present with oral manifestations. In addition, patients with specific vascular diseases, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly called Wegener’s granulomatosis), may present with pathognomonic oral lesions. In some instances, oral involvement precedes the appearance of other symptoms or lesions at other locations. To aid in diagnosis and guide the approach to dental treatment, dental healthcare professionals should recognize oral manifestations of cardiovascular diseases and other systemic or multiorgan diseases with a vascular component. A thorough understanding of the potential oral side effects of therapeutic agents commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases is very helpful in overall patient management.

This intermediate-level course addresses current concepts regarding the relationship between oral health and vascular and cardiovascular diseases, including the impact on oral health of common cardiovascular pharmacotherapies. This course is intended for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, as well as other healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients with selected vascular and cardiovascular diseases.

 

AGD Subject Code: 730
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 4 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures

 

  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.

 

Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the prevalence and history of cardiovascular disease and its relationship with periodontal disease.
  • Describe the signs, symptoms, and oral manifestations of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
  • List oral presentations of cardiac agents used in treating cardiovascular disease.
  • Identify oral manifestations of congenital cardiovascular diseases and diseases with a vascular component.
  • Explain oral healthcare recommendations for patients with selected cardiovascular conditions.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, DMD, MSc, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Paul Subar, DDS, EdD, FACD, is an assistant professor of dental practice and director of the Special Care Clinic and Hospital Dentistry at the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco, California. Dr. Subar earned his bachelor’s degree in biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz; his DDS at the University of California, Los Angeles; his advanced training in hospital dentistry at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center; and his doctorate of education at the Benerd School of Education, University of the Pacific.

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

Nutrition for the Dental Patient, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0752  

Release Date: July 30, 2013

Review Date: July 5, 2016

Expiration Date: July 4, 2019

 

Poor nutrition can lead to caries, periodontal problems, and loss of teeth and bone. In addition, nutritional problems can put our patients at risk for certain systemic diseases and conditions such as heart problems, cancer, stroke and diabetes. This basic-level course reviews several important areas concerning proper nutrition for the dental patient including antioxidants, sugars, fats, the special nutritional needs of pregnant patients, and the intake of mercury, calcium and Vitamin D.

 

 

AGD Subject Code: 150

Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Identify different antioxidants and their dietary sources.
  • List several sugar substitutes.
  • Describe different types of fats.
  • Describe the role of dietary mercury.
  • Explain the importance of calcium and vitamin D.
  • Describe the special dietary needs and concerns of pregnant dental patients.
Author Bio(s)

 

Ronald M. Mancini, DDS, maintains a private dental practice in Bethesda, Maryland. He is a member of the American Dental Association (ADA), the Maryland State Dental Association (MSDA), and the Southern Maryland Dental Society (SMDS). Dr. Mancini has held several positions with the SMDS, including those of trustee, president, vice president, treasurer, and editor, as well as serving as a delegate and head of the delegation to the MSDA House of Delegates.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

Implant-Related Nerve Injuries

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0748  

Release Date: June 7, 2016

Expiration Date: June 6, 2019

 

According to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry there are currently 3 million people in the United States with dental implants, and that number is growing by 500,000 per year. While the success rate of implants has been reported to be 98%, there are still some risks involved. Because of their ability to restore esthetics and function, dental implants have become the preferred option for replacing nonrestorable and missing teeth. Despite high success rates, however, many complications have been encountered with their use.

One of the most serious complications is the alteration of sensation after implant placement in the posterior mandible. The prevalence of this type of a complication has been reported to be as high as 13%. This sensatory change can occur as a result of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) or the lingual nerve from traumatic local anesthetic injections or during dental implant osteotomy or placement. This complication is one of the most unpleasant experiences for both the patient and the dentist, so every precaution should be taken to avoid it. Once it happens, the dentist should provide the patient with appropriate care and should know when to refer the patient to a microneurosurgeon. Depending on the degree of nerve injury, alteration in sensation varies from mild paresthesia to complete anesthesia. Injuries sustained may be transient, manageable, or, in certain cases, permanent.

This intermediate-level course familiarizes dental professionals with different types of nerve injuries related to implant placement and their causes, and the areas within the oral cavity at increased risk for such injuries. The course discusses how the dental professional can properly plan implant placement to avoid nerve injury and how to treat nerve injuries if they do occur.

AGD Subject Code: 690
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Differentiate among the types of nerve injuries.
  • Explain the mechanisms that cause nerve injury related to implant placement.
  • Identify the anatomical areas that present more risks when placing implants.
  • Recognize the strategies used to avoid nerve injury during implant placement.
  • Explain how to manage implant-related nerve injuries.
Author Bio(s)

 

Veronica Powers, DMD, received a BS degree from Providence College and a DMD degree from the Oregon Health & Science University. After working for four years as a general dentist in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Powers returned to New York City to serve as lead dentist for Phoenix House Foundation in Brooklyn, New York, where she provided comprehensive treatment for the residents of a rehabilitation facility. In this capacity, she performed simple and surgical extractions and root canals and placed crowns, bridges, and removable prosthodontics. Dr. Powers created the protocol for the day-to-day management of the clinic and became especially adept at treating anxious patients. Now in private practice, Dr. Powers is licensed to practice dentistry in the state of New York, maintains registration with the Drug Enforcement Administration, and is CPR-certified. She has provided volunteer dentistry in India and in Chiapas, Mexico, and has worked with the American Dental Association’s Give Kids a Smile program in the United States.

 

Content Editor

Update of Concepts in Vital Tooth Whitening, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0727  

Release Date: December 3, 2010

Review Date: June 2, 2016

Expiration Date: June 1, 2019

 

Vital tooth whitening is an aesthetic and conservative treatment for discolored teeth. The popularity of vital tooth whitening has increased dramatically in recent years, as shown by the increased number of products and procedures introduced, ranging from at-home tray whitening and trayless whitening techniques – both dentist prescribed and over the counter (OTC) – to in-office 1-hour whitening systems. Recent years have also seen the rise of nondental options for vital tooth whitening. The increasing number of vital tooth-whitening techniques and materials has created a clinical challenge for dentists and other oral health providers seeking to balance effectiveness and safety. Proper patient selection for vital tooth whitening becomes even more important in this environment.

Most recently, there has been a push to find ways to accelerate and improve the delivery of the whitening process. These include a number of light sources believed to accelerate the breakdown of peroxide and thus speed up the whitening process. Research in this area is controversial, with the literature describing different conclusions about the benefits of light-activated whitening. The popularity of strip-based peroxide delivery represents a departure from the conventional use of a professionally supervised tray system and raises questions about safety and efficacy.

Patient demand for tooth whitening remains high, and oral health providers have more options for treatment, so it is important that clinicians evaluate which of these options is best for their patients. This basic-level course reviews concepts in vital tooth whitening, including recommendations in ADA guidelines; describes evolving issues in vital tooth whitening (e.g., measurement of color change, the color rebound effect, and safety issues); and explains the risk and benefits of established and new technologies.

 

AGD Subject Code: 781
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe evolving issues in vital tooth whitening, including measuring color change.
  • Explain prewhitening evaluations and mechanisms underlying vital tooth whitening.
  • Outline current vital tooth-whitening methods and materials.
  • Identify the color rebound effect and safety issues associated with vital tooth whitening.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, MSc, DMD, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Raymond K. Martin, DDS, MAGD, graduated in 1979 from Texas Tech University with a bachelor’s degree in microbiology and earned his DDS in 1983 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He then went on to study at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in the General Practice Residency Program. Dr. Martin began his work in dental risk management after being awarded a Mastership in the Academy of General Dentistry. He consults with 20 legal firms as an expert witness and lectures extensively on dental risk management and ethics in dentistry. In addition, Dr. Martin teaches CAD/CAM dentistry as a CEREC mentor and has served as a Key Opinion Leader for an international dental implant manufacturer. Dr. Martin has maintained a private practice for more than three decades and is currently president of the Massachusetts Dental Society. He has served the American Dental Association on the Future of Dentistry work group and is currently a member of the Council on Government Affairs.

Improving Oral Health Care for Patients With Special Needs, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0734  

Release Date: July 27, 2010

Review Date: June 2, 2016

Expiration Date: June 1, 2019

 

Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of people with special healthcare needs, and the trend is expected to continue. Population shifts as a result of immigration and other socio-economic factors will persist in straining the current delivery system. The special needs population already faces barriers in obtaining oral health services, and this situation will continue to deteriorate under the present system of care.

As policy makers wrestle with major health disparities experienced by people with special health-care needs, dental professionals must be at the forefront of ensuring adequate delivery of oral healthcare services to this population.

This basic-level course addresses current thinking about the challenges dental professionals face with providing oral healthcare services for people with special needs. It identifies the factors that hinder access to dental care and presents strategies to improve the provision of care for the special needs population. The course includes recommendations for the management and treatment of special needs patients.

 

AGD Subject Code: 753
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

 

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Define patient with special needs.
  • Describe the oral health challenges of patients with special needs.
  • Identify the factors that hinder access to dental care for patients with special needs.
  • Discuss recommendations for the management and treatment of patients with special needs.
  • Identify strategies for improving oral health and access to care for patients with special needs.
Author Bio(s)

 

John F. Kross, MSc, DMD, received his doctorate in dental medicine from Temple University School of Dentistry in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a fellowship at Temple University Hospital in oral oncology and received a hospital appointment to the Department of Dentistry at the Medical Centers of Delaware (now the Christiana Health Care System). His professional training and experience include practicing general dentistry in Wilmington, Delaware, and in New London, Pennsylvania, as well as instructing students at Delaware Technical Community College in oral pathology. Dr. Kross has received numerous academic awards for his work in oral surgery, fixed partial prosthodontics, periodontics, and endodontics. He has been composing monographs, manuscripts, and continuing medical education courses since 1991.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Toni M. Roucka, RN, DDS, MA, is an associate professor of restorative dentistry and associate dean for academic affairs at Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine in Alton, Illinois. She maintains an active nursing license and is a Fellow of the American College of Dentists and immediate president of the American Society for Dental Ethics. Dr. Roucka obtained her DDS degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry and master’s degree in population health – bioethics from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Roucka is a nationally recognized speaker on the subject of ethics in dentistry and has taught restorative dentistry at both Marquette University and Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine.

Pharmacological Agents Commonly Used in Dental Practice: A Review of Side Effects, Adverse Reactions, and Precautions, 2nd Edition

Price: $49.95 
Item # L0802  

Release Date: July 30, 2013

Review Date: December 27, 2016

Expiration Date: December 26, 2019

 

While new medications continue to come on the market to treat disease, the typical drug armamentarium for practicing oral healthcare professionals (OHCPs) continues to be fairly limited, in keeping with the old adage “Simple is best.” In fact, dental prescribers tend to rely on just five classes of medications to routinely aid in the delivery of excellent oral health care: analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, local anesthetics, sedatives, and emergency medications. Even so, the importance of keeping up to date, even when considering just a handful of medications, can be a challenge given the myriad other medications or herbal supplements patients may be taking outside of their dental visit. To avoid potential drug interactions and ensure patient safety, it is especially important to be knowledgeable about the mechanism of action of these medications, their side effects, adverse reactions, precautions, and any special dental considerations related to their use.

This intermediate-level course reviews the pharmacology and indications for use of the most common medications employed in dentistry. It addresses the pharmacology, side effects, adverse reactions, precautions, and any special dental considerations related to the use of the medications most frequently employed in dentistry. This course will also fill gaps in knowledge concerning patient selection, contraindications, and appropriate administration in certain special populations requiring advanced consideration. The principles learned will be directly applicable in determining the most suitable approach for drug selection and prescribing and will help address patient and staff concerns around potential risks. Information presented in this course should be considered essential knowledge for all dental professionals, both seasoned and newly credentialed.

 

AGD Subject Code: 016
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 5 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents used in dental practice.
  • Discuss antibiotics used in dental practice.
  • Identify local anesthetics used in dental practice.
  • Discuss sedatives used in dental practice.
  • List emergency medications used in dental practice.
  • Recognize the special considerations in using medication with patients who are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Author Bio(s)

 

Mark Donaldson, BSP, RPH, PharmD, ACPR, FASHP, FACHE, received his baccalaureate degree from the University of British Columbia and his doctorate in clinical pharmacy from the University of Washington. He has further completed a residency at Canada’s largest tertiary care facility, Vancouver General Hospital, and is the current Director of Pharmacy Clinical Services at Vizient. Dr. Donaldson is a clinical professor in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Montana in Missoula and clinical associate professor in the School of Dentistry at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. He has a special interest in dental pharmacology and has lectured internationally to both dental and medical practitioners. Dr. Donaldson has a number of published works in the peer-reviewed literature and has coauthored textbook chapters. He spent 3 years in Japan focusing on cross-cultural communication and internationalization. He currently serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), is board certified in healthcare management, and is the past-president of the American College of Healthcare Executives’ Montana Chapter. In 2016 he was recognized by the Academy of General Dentistry as the recipient of the Dr. Thaddeus V. Weclew Award. This award is conferred upon an individual who has made outstanding contributions to the art and science of dentistry and/or enhanced the principles and ideals of the Academy.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Raymond K. Martin, DDS, MAGD, graduated in 1979 from Texas Tech University with a bachelor’s degree in microbiology and earned his DDS in 1983 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He then went on to study at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in the General Practice Residency Program. Dr. Martin began his work in dental risk management after being awarded a Mastership in the Academy of General Dentistry. He consults with 20 legal firms as an expert witness and lectures extensively on dental risk management and ethics in dentistry. In addition, Dr. Martin teaches CAD/CAM dentistry as a CEREC mentor and has served as a Key Opinion Leader for an international dental implant manufacturer. Dr. Martin has maintained a private practice for more than three decades and is currently president of the Massachusetts Dental Society. He has served the American Dental Association on the Future of Dentistry work group and is currently a member of the Council on Government Affairs.

Three Drug Classes: Antibiotics, Analgesics, and Local Anesthetics, 2nd Edition

Price: $39.95 
Item # L0943  

Review Date: October 30, 2018

Expiration Date: October 30, 2021

Original Release Date: March 16, 2016

Oral healthcare professionals (OHCPs) are routinely involved with the selection and prescription of medications for their patients. This course is designed to help them become better-informed prescribers of the top three drug classes employed in dentistry: antibiotics, analgesics, and local anesthetics. This intermediate-level course is specifically designed for all members of the dental healthcare team: dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Since the goal of providing medication in dentistry is to ensure selection of the right drug at the right time and at the right dose for the right patient and the right procedure, the information presented in this course should be considered essential knowledge for all OHCPs, both seasoned and newly credentialed.

 

AGD Subject Code: 340

Western Schools designates this activity for 4 continuing education credits.

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the benefits and limitations of antibiotics and their appropriate use in dental practice.
  • Describe the pharmacotherapies for pain management and the appropriate use of analgesics in dental practice.
  • Describe different types of local anesthetics and their appropriate use in dental practice.
Author Bio(s)

Mark Donaldson, BSP, RPH, PharmD, FASHP, FACHE, received his baccalaureate degree from the University of British Columbia (UBC) and his doctorate in clinical pharmacy from the University of Washington. He has further completed a residency at Canada’s largest tertiary care facility, Vancouver General Hospital, and is the current Associate Principal for Vizient Pharmacy Advisory Solutions. Dr. Donaldson is a clinical professor in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Montana in Missoula and clinical associate professor in the School of Dentistry at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, Oregon, and the Faculty of Dentistry at UBC in Vancouver. He has a special interest in dental pharmacology and has lectured internationally to both dental and medical practitioners. Dr. Donaldson has a number of published works in the peer-reviewed literature and has co-authored several textbook chapters. He spent three years in Japan focusing on cross-cultural com­munication and internationalization. He currently serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of the American Dental Association, is board certified in healthcare management, and is the past-president and current Regent of the American College of Healthcare Executives’ Montana Chapter.

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Joseph Best, DDS, PhD, is a 1989 graduate of Marquette University School of Dentistry (MUSOD) and a part-time faculty member at the dental school in the division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. He is the course director for the Medical Emergencies and Pharmacotherapeutics courses at MUSOD and lectures extensively in pharmacology, medicine, oral surgery, and implant dentistry, both at the dental school and in regional continuing education programs. Dr. Best received his PhD in pharmacology and a certificate in oral and maxillofacial surgery from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. He is a board-certified oral and maxillofacial surgeon and maintains a private practice with Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Associates of Waukesha in Waukesha, Wisconsin. He is also a certified basic life support instructor for the American Heart Association.

Protecting Patient Safety in the Dental Office: Preventing Medical/Dental Errors

Price: $39.95 
Item # L0876  

Review Date: July 7, 2017

Expiration Date: July 6, 2020

Original Release Date: November 10, 2014

 

This basic-level course discusses the current state of medical/dental errors and patient safety. Along with highlighting the different types and causes of medical/dental errors, strategies to prevent or control medical/dental errors are presented, and methods of identifying, analyzing, and reporting medical/dental errors are discussed. The course is intended for all dental professionals, including general dentists and dental specialists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. This course is not designed to give legal advice. Rather, its purpose is to provide dental professionals with information on current issues in medical/dental errors and patient safety.

 

 

 

Florida - Fulfills your medical error requirement.

 
AGD Subject Code 159
 
Western Schools designates this activity for 4 continuing education credits.

 

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the scope, background, and language of medical/dental errors.
  • List the error-reducing strategies for common types of medical/dental errors.
  • Discuss the possible legal and ethical implications of medical/dental errors.
  • Describe the processes for identifying, analyzing, and reporting medical/dental errors in a culture of safety, including the use of root cause analysis.
  • Identify populations with increased vulnerability to medical/dental errors.
  • Discuss patient safety education and patient safety initiatives.
Author Bio(s)

 

Nicholas Grimaudo, DMD, PhD, graduated in 1976 from Adelphi University with a bachelor’s degree in biology and received his DMD in 1980 from the University of Florida College of Dentistry in Gainesville. Dr. Grimaudo spent 15 years in private practice before returning to academia. He received a master’s degree in material sciences and engineering in 1992 and a master’s degree in oral microbiology in 1995, both from the University of Florida College of Medicine. Dr. Grimaudo has taught at the University of Florida College of Dentistry since 1989 and became a tenured faculty member in 1999. He has served the University of Florida as director of quality assurance for its dental clinics, director for advanced techniques with esthetic restorations, and director of infection control in dentistry. In 2007, Dr. Grimaudo completed a doctoral degree in educational administration and policy at the University of Florida College of Education. In addition to teaching and develop­ing coursework on treatment planning and clinical dentistry, Dr. Grimaudo teaches continuing education courses for healthcare professionals on professional ethics and other relevant practice regulatory and clinical topics. He is the owner of OSHA Compliance Training Associates and consults with medical and dental offices on OSHA and HIPAA issues. He has lectured nationally and internationally on risk management, record keeping and compliance, ethics and jurisprudence, treatment planning, and other practice-related topics.

 

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Raymond K. Martin, DDS, MAGD, graduated in 1979 from Texas Tech University with a bachelor’s degree in microbiology and earned his DDS in 1983 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He then went on to study at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in the General Practice Residency Program. Dr. Martin began his work in dental risk management after being awarded a Mastership in the Academy of General Dentistry. He consults with 15 legal firms as an expert witness and lectures extensively on the dental risk management topic. Dr. Martin has maintained a private practice for more than three decades and currently serves nationally as the Region 1 Trustee for the Academy of General Dentistry and as a member of the Council on Government Affairs for the American Dental Association.

Dental Ethics and the Digital Age: 3 Hour, Updated 1st Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0948  

Review Date: August 7, 2018

Expiration Date: August 7, 2021

Original Release Date: January 28, 2016

The practice of dentistry is multifaceted. Not only must dental professionals have the technical skills to treat patients appropriately and safely, they must also practice within a professional ethical framework that is sometimes more challenging than the dental procedures themselves. This basic-level course helps dental professionals gain a better understanding of dental ethics, professionalism, and current ethical challenges to the profession, with particular emphasis on the impact of the digital age. Dental professionals may be eager to incorporate the latest technologies into their practices and into their private lives, but must consider the ethical implications of doing so.

 

AGD Subject Code:  555

Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

This course should not be taken in conjunction with L0900 - Dental Ethics and the Digital Age: 2 Hour, Updated 1st Edition.

Fulfills Ethics requirement in the following states: Arizona, Hawaii, Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Oklahoma.

This course is the updated version of course L0724 - Dental Ethics and the Digital Age: 3 Hour

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Describe the evolution of healthcare ethics, including events that affected development of the principles of ethics that guide the dental profession.
  • Describe how codes of ethics and concepts of professionalism guide the dental practitioner’s
    relationships and obligations.
  • Discuss the relationship of ethics to legal obligations.
  • Identify current and emerging ethical challenges facing dental professionals.
  • Describe how ethical decision making models help dental professionals recognize and address
    ethical dilemmas in practice.
Author Bio(s)

Toni M. Roucka, RN, DDS, MA, is an associate professor and associate dean for academic affairs at Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine in Alton, Illinois. She is a Fellow of the American College of Dentists and current president of the American Society for Dental Ethics, a special section of the American College of Dentists. Dr. Roucka obtained her DDS degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry and master’s degree in population health – bioethics from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Roucka is a nationally recognized speaker and has written extensively on the subject of ethics in dentistry. She currently writes a regular ethics column for General Dentistry, the journal of the Academy of General Dentistry.

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Odette Aguirre, DDS, MS, MPH, is Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Biomedical and Applied Sciences at Indiana University School of Dentistry in Indianapolis, Indiana, and Affiliate Faculty at the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Indiana University, in Bloomington, Indiana. She has recently been nominated as a Fellow of the American College of Dentists and serves as a Member-at-Large of the American Society for Dental Ethics, a special section of the American College of Dentists. Dr. Aguirre obtained her DDS degree from Universidad Francisco Marroquín in Guatemala City, where she grew up. After graduation, she completed a General Practice Residency at Eastman Dental Center in Rochester, NY, where she also obtained an MS from the University of Rochester. She obtained a bioethics degree from Indiana University’s Department of Philosophy and an MPH from the Fairbanks School of Public Health. At IUSD, she is Director of the “Ethics and Professionalism” courses for first and second year dental students, and co-leads ethics rounds and a clinical ethics consultation service for third and fourth year dental students. Dr. Aguirre is IUSD’s Director of Interprofessional Ethics Seminars, a series of workshops with various healthcare professionals and students, meant to foster collaborative ethics discussions. She is Associate Producer of a series of ethical dilemma videos in a collaboration between IUSD and the American College of Dentists.

Caries Management by Risk Assessment: CAMBRA in Dental Practice, 2nd Edition

Price: $29.95 
Item # L0889  

Review Date: August 3, 2018

Expiration Date: August 3, 2021

Original Release Date: July 5, 2011

This basic-level course provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of caries management and applies the concepts of CAMBRA. This course will help dental practitioners become better equipped to halt the progression of caries with as little hard tissue damage as possible, thereby benefiting their patients. And the learner will be introduced to different protocols in order to treat caries using the medical model.

 

AGD Subject Code: 250

Western Schools designates this activity for 3 continuing education credits.

Disclosures
  • Courses must be completed on or before the expiration date noted in the course description above.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that the course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.
  • There are no prerequisites for this course.
Objectives

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the evolution of caries management and the philosophies of minimal intervention dentistry, minimally invasive dentistry, and caries management by risk assessment in the practice of dentistry.
  • Discuss the factors affecting caries risk.
  • Explain the importance of saliva testing.
  • Identify different protocols to treat caries using the medical model.
  • Discuss the risks, alternatives, and benefits of using glass ionomers as dental sealants.
Author Bio(s)

Amy Nieves, RDH, graduated from Middlesex County College in Edison, New Jersey, in 1999 and launched www.amyrdh.com to serve as an online resource for dental hygiene students, clinical hygien-ists, educators, and other dental professionals. From 2000 to 2007, Ms. Nieves was a regular con-tributor to the peer-reviewed journal Contemporary Oral Hygiene with her monthly column, “Hygiene Solutions.” Her articles have appeared in various dental hygiene publications. In 2004, she co-authored The Purple Guide: Developing Your Clinical Dental Hygiene Career with Shirley Gutkowski, RDH, BSDH. Ms. Nieves was the southern Michigan specialist for GC America, Inc., from 2007 to 2010 and has also been the eastern Pennsylvania clinical specialist for OralDNA.

Elena Francisco, RDH, RDHAP, MSDH, received her bachelor of science degree in dental hygiene from Loma Linda University and her master’s degree in dental hygiene education from Idaho State University. She is currently an adjunct clinical instructor in dental hygiene at Carrington College in Sacramento, California. Prior to joining the faculty at Carrington College, Ms. Francisco was a clini­cal instructor in dental hygiene at the University of the Pacific Arthur Dugoni School of Dentistry. A licensed registered dental hygienist in alternative practice, Ms. Francisco has co-authored several journal articles on dental hygienists’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors regarding caries risk assessment and management.

Peer Reviewer Bio(s)

Douglas A. Young, DDS, EdD, MS, MBA, is a Professor at the University of the Pacific where he is an active and ardent educator in the field of minimally invasive dentistry and cariology. He was one of the founders of the CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) Coalition, American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Cariology Section, and the American Academy of Cariology (AAC). Dr. Young served on the ADA Council of Scientific Affairs (2012 to 2016) and is currently a member of the ADA Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) Leaders network and a cariology consultant for the ADA. Dr. Young has presented at congresses and universities around the world. Dr. Young has been published in numerous peer-reviewed dental journals and textbooks focusing on minimally invasive dentistry, silver fluoride, glass ionomer, and CAMBRA.

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