Disciplines:
  • Social Work
  • Counseling
  • Marriage and Family Therapy
  • Psychology
Hours: 3 Contact Hours
Author(s): Anita Carroll, RN, MSN, EdD
Peer Reviewer(s): Deborah Smith Armstrong, RN, PhD
Item#: B4076
Contents: 1 Course Book (21 pages)

Types of Pregnancy Loss and the Impact on Parents and Grief


Price $29.95
Item # B4076
When available, the Online Course format is included with the hard copy, eBook, or audio book formats!

This basic-level course provides nurses, medical social workers, counselors, marriage and family therapists, and psychologists with the knowledge necessary to recognize the various types of pregnancy loss and their possible causes. The course opens with definitions of types of loss specific to the first trimester (miscarriage/early spontaneous abortion, elective abortion, loss in multiple gestation, and ectopic pregnancy), the second trimester (late miscarriage/spontaneous abortion, elective abortion following prenatal testing, and loss in multiple gestation), and the third trimester (stillbirth, loss in multiple gestation) and losses related to infertility treatment (chemical pregnancy and multifetal reduction). It provides a psychosocial overview of pregnancy loss, including discussions of self-blame, anger, guilt, shame, confusion, and grief. 

Participants will learn about factors affecting parents’ recovery from grief, including fertility, responses of others, and relationships with physicians and caregivers. Pregnancy losses with increased complexity are discussed, such as loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and loss with a gestational carrier. Tips are provided for helping grieving parents, such as connecting them with appropriate clergy, local bereavement organizations, and self-help groups. The course is appropriate for professionals working in prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum settings.

Participants will receive 3 (Clinical Content) continuing education clock hours upon successfully completing this course.

Counselors - course does not qualify for NBCC credit.

Course Objectives
  • Describe the terms that apply to pregnancy losses that occur during the various trimesters.
  • Discuss types of pregnancy loss and their potential causes.
  • Identify signs and symptoms of the psychological impact of pregnancy loss.
  • Identify factors that affect recovery from the grief of pregnancy loss.
  • Discuss interventions that are helpful and those that should be avoided when caring for people coping with a pregnancy loss.
Anita Carroll, RN, MSN, EdD, has taught all levels of professional nursing for over 30 years. She currently teaches in the bachelor of science in nursing program at West Texas A&M University in Canyon Texas. She has taught courses in maternal-newborn health neonatal health pharmacology management and fundamentals. She has also helped develop master's level tracks and courses for neonatal clinical nurse specialists and nursing education. She was a childbirth educator for 10 years and implemented a March of Dimes grant. She has presented more than 120 programs in maternal-newborn nursing to community hospitals and has certified numerous nurses as neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation providers and instructors. She received the Texas Nurse of the Year Award from the Texas Nurses Association in 1996 as well as many other teaching awards throughout her career.
Deborah Smith Armstrong, RN, PhD, earned her BSN from Vanderbilt University, her MSN from the University of Louisville, and her PhD from the University of Kentucky. Her research area of expertise involves pregnancy after perinatal loss and parenting subsequent healthy infants. Her research concentrates on the psychological distress that results from the prior loss. She has received multiple grant awards for her research, the most recent being an award from the National Institute of Nursing Research at the National Institutes of Health to examine the long-term consequences of distress on couples with previous losses, from late in a subsequent pregnancy through the first 8 months after the birth of a healthy infant. She has had numerous publications and presentations on the topic of psychological distress resulting from prior perinatal loss and subsequent parenting. She is currently an associate professor at the School of Nursing at the University of Louisville (KY).
  • Contact hours will be awarded for up to one (1) year from the date the course is ordered.
  • You must score 75% or higher on the final exam and complete the course evaluation to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.
  • Through our review processes, Western Schools ensures that this course content is presented in a balanced, unbiased manner and is free from commercial influence. It is Western Schools’ policy not to accept commercial support.
  • All persons involved in the planning and development of this course have disclosed no relevant financial relationships or other conflicts of interest related to the course content.